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Lecture 9

BIO 1130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Arthropod Cuticle, Mollusca, Continental Shelf


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Lecture
9

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Paleozoic Periods
- Paleozoic era
- Cambrian 550-488 Ma
- Ordovician 488-443 Ma
- Silurian 443-416 Ma Age of plants (plants start appearing on land)
- Devonian 416-359 Ma Age of Fishes (fish/first vertebrates appear in the
oceans)
- Carboniferous 359-299 Ma
- Permian 299-245 Ma 90% of the biodiversity die off in a mass
extinction
Cambrian and Ordovician Periods
- Burgess shale give us a look at the very first starts of life
- Explosion of animal forms that most of them didn’t make it through evolution over
time
- So much diversity Evolutionary arms race for predator and prey
Colonial choanocyte ancestor
- Sat there on its butt and used Flagellum to beat the water so that food can get in
or pushed out (phagocytosis)
Animal Architecture
- Tissues things that help stuff move between cells (Cell to cell communication)
- None, diploblastic (two layer skin), or triploblastic (mesoderm muscle
tissues) (Three layer skin)
- Symmetry and cephalization
- Asymmetry, radial (like Jellyfish), and bilateral symmetry (one axis to split)
- Embryology single cell to multicell
- Protostome and deuterostome
- Body cavities
- Coelomate, pseudocoelomate, acoelomate (no coelom/ no body cavity)
Porifera Sponges
- Use of choanocytes in an aquiferous system
- Cells but no tissues  layers of cells on collagen
- Totipotent cells Any cell can dedifferentiate and turn into a different cell type
- Asymmetric body plan
Cecile, uses flagellum to pump water through the sponge consuming nutrients from
this water via phagocytosis
Amoebocytes wander around and passes on the food to those cells that need it.

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Sponge Sex
- Choanocytes become sperm sprays sperm into the water
- Archeocytes (amoebocytes) (sponge stem cells) form egg stop and sit there,
waiting for sperm
- Must be same species
Loss of choanocyte
Gap junctions made with connexions (can open and close the channel in the cell)
True tissues
Internal digestive epithelium
Tissues:
- No tissues  Sponge
- Diploblastic germ layers
- Ectoderm and endoderm
- Triploblastic germ layers
- Ectoderm, mesoderm (muscle) and endoderm
Symmetry and Cephalization
- Asymmetric
- Radial symmetry
- Bilateral symmetry and cephalization (sensory structures (head) at one end)
Forming hollow ball of cells Blastula
Blastopore = opening that helps us move food in and out
Cnidaria (Jelly fish) predatory
- Cnidocytes (stinging cells) (unique)
- Nematocyst forceful punching barb
- On the tentacles of the pulyp
- Polyp body (organism that is arrested at the gastrula stage)
- Epitheliomusculature
Mesoglea Jelly like and elastic and the muscles move using this
Sea Pen Corals
- Might predate the cambrian
- Found in the burgess shale
Coral reefs
- Equator and Tropical climates
- Rich environments
- Polyps growing on top of each other
- Mountain ranges made from coral
Platyhelminthes

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- Triploblastic
- Bilateral symmetry
- Coelom (body cavity)
Spiral cleavage cells sitting on top of other cells in the grooves
Radial cleavage cells sitting directly on top of other cells
Blastula Blastopore (opening to the mouth (protostomes) or butt (deuterostomes))
Schizocoel occurs when the mesodermal tissues break and form a body cavity
As soon as we get mesoderm we get coelom
Mollusca feeds with a radula
- Mantel calcium based (makes the shell)
Aquiferous vs water vascular system KNOW THE FUCKING DIFFERENCE
35 phili that exist today, were in the cambrian
+ The ones that are weird and existed in the cambria alone and are now extinct
An explanation for the Cambrian Explosion
- Snowball earth
- Raw rock, nothing on the land at this point in time (650 Ma Late
Proterozoic)
- Decrease in the amount of radian energy being absorbed because of the
large, rocky land masses
- Sitting on the equator therefore there is lots of rain
- Leaching of minerals into the oceans because of the rain fall on the rock
and the inundation of it because of this
- Algae coming from the rocks blooms really fast and large and then die
(thus blocking out oxygen)
- Dissolved CO2 is being taken out of the atmosphere and pulled into the
water and then linked as bicarbonate which then lowers the CO2 levels in
the water and the cycle starts over
- Destroy the insulative blanket that is covering the earth and so ice forms
at the two poles. And so they also send radian energy back out and
therefore the planet can’t warm itself, and so the earth cools and more ice
forms and more ice forms and more ice forms, until the entire world is
covered in ice (ICE AGE)
- Very little productivity in the world growing organisms plant
- Ediacaran era (snowball earth’s name)
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