BIO 1140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lysosome, Autophagy, Ubiquitin

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Mon, February 8 - Lecture 9 Mitochondria part 1
Slide 3
Mitochondria also important for: metabolism, response to stress on the cell, cell death,
(Embryological development, it is important for cells to die!) calcium storage (calcium important
for many processes within the cell).
Slide 4
Centrifugation, you can use different speeds, etc. to determine different parts of the cell's
function and interaction with others
Slide 5
Part of the protein is facing the membrane. It is a channel protein. Allows passage of hydrogen
ions- electrochemical concentration gradient. Aptness running in reverse to make ATP, or
forwards to breakdown ATP to AP. hydrophilic inner, hydrophobic outside. Enzymatic protein,
because it has enzymatic functions (phosporolate ATP or produce ATP). Quaternary structure.
Energy comes from using conc. gradient of H ions, which allows the F1 unit to rotate, which
powers phosphorylation of ATP to ADP (or in the reverse direction).
Slide 7
Not all proteins are enzymes, but all enzymes are proteins.
Slide 10
100 amino acids is way too small- closer to 600-800
Slide 13
Investment phase (2 input) and payoff phase (2 output)= 2 ATP overall. H+ contributes to
building concentration gradient in the matrix
Slide 14
1 NADH for each pyruvate, and 1 CoA which does into the Krebs cycle. Then get 3 NADH, 3
H+, and one FADH2. *only pay attention to what you get out of it
Slide 16
Each complex builds up H+ gradient to power the roster of the protein and power the
phosphorolation of ATP. Goal of cellular resp: have enough conc gradient to power the proton
rotor in order to phosphorolate ADP.
Slide 17
Calcium important in gap junctions (determining whether to be open or closed), release of
neurotransmitters, driving force for antiporters and symporters, muscle contractions, response to
stimuli, bones, enzymatic cofactor, signalling.
Slide 18
Calcium is toxic to cells. Calcium binding proteins take away the ion (?) making it no longer
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