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University of Ottawa
Kathleen Gilmour

UNIT2 TranslationTranslation is mRNADirected Polypeptide Synthesis Key Points to RemembertRNAs are small RNAs of a highly distinctive structure that bring amino acids to the ribosome adaptor hypothesisRibosomes are rRNAprotein complexes that work as automated protein assembly machinesTranslation initiation brings the ribosomal subunits anmRNA and the first aminoacyltRNA togetherPolypeptide chains grow during the elongation stage of translationTermination releases a completed polypeptide from the ribosomeMultiple ribosomes simultaneously translate a single mRNANewly synthesized polypeptides are processed and folded into finished formFinished proteins contain sorting signals that direct them to cellular locations next UnitBasepair mutations can affect protein structure and functionWithin the cell are multiple sites of protein synthesis cytoplasm membranebound and organelle Location and function are relatedTranslation OverviewAssembly of amino acids into polypeptides occurs on ribosomesP A and E sites on ribosome used for stepwise addition of amino acids to polypeptide as directed by mRNAAll steps require protein factors initiation factorsIF or eIF elongation factorsEF or eEF and energy supplied by GTPThe Players in Translation Genetic CodeDNA threeletter code TripletRNA threeletter code CodonA threeletter code with 4 bases allows 64 combinations more than enough for 20 amino acids start and stop codonsGenetic Code Conventionsby convention sequences are always written from 5 to 3the codon in DNA is written the same as the codon in RNA except that T becomes U 5GAC3 in DNA is 5GAC3 in RNA But 5GTC3 in DNA is 5GUC3 in RNA molecular types often mess this up and use T when writing RNA f the codon is 5GAC3then the anticodon is 5GUC 3 to maintain the Hbonding rulesby convention 5GAC3 is simply GACFeatures of the Genetic CodeStart codon or initiator codonFirst amino acid recognized during translationSpecifies amino acid methionineEstablishes the reading frameSense codons
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