CMN 3133: Lecture #8 Oct 1 2013
Pluralism political availability of different contexts.
Citizens chose rationality free will to chose separe audiDare to know
Two step flow Lazarsfeld and Katz
Last class Herman and Chomsky 5 filters
The two step flow and Mass society:
"twostep flow of communication" hypothesis. In the first step, messages are issued by the mass media to
what is, to all out ward appearances, a more or less homogeneous
mass audience. political communication comes from the top
Persuasion appeals to your emotions so you will participate
Propaganda has a hidden agenda, is hiding something
1. MESSAGES are issued by the mass media to what is, to all out ward appearances, a more or less
homogeneous mass audience.
2. Small group interactions powered by horizontal opinion leaders interpret and contextualize these
mediated messages for their participants, who then internalize the resulting content. – opinions and
consumers were not passive▯ they in fact had diverse opinions that were formulated from internal
communication within these networks.
The end result is a more or less differentiated understanding of the message across various social
1. There were limits to the potential influence of mediated communication, limits set by each individual's
knowledge networks and social interactions
2. Mass society could never be entirely homogeneous;
And individual social locations could never be entirely isolated from mass influence. You cannot exclude yourself from the flow of political communication, you cannot live outside society
Central importance of personal conversation, even the most casual of talk, in the democratic process.
Personal conversation (social discourse) that is the very definition of democracy (Kim, Wyatt, and Katz
Greek society, variety of political possibilities.
Spirals of negative affects and selective attention:
Negative Affectfear/anxiety attention to stimuli
Reciprocal relationships between negative emotions and attention to campaign cues that is due to
campaign induced affective reactions.
Negative affective voter reactions to portrayals of ethnic minorities
Use of racial cues –strategy to elicit negative emotions
Consequence: affecting voting intentions or attitudes toward policy programs
Media use as endogenous:
Media content, channel, and genre choices are a function of a person’s age, gender, disposition, prior
experience, mood, ideology, social influences, and social identity ( Zillman & Bryant, 1985 )
Proposition 1: In most media effects contexts, the role of media can be modeled as endogenous, mediating,
or partially mediating the effect of other individualdifference variables on the outcomes of interest.
Nonetheless , Media selectivity and effects as structuring, dynamic process:
Thus, proposition 2: C