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3. Criminology Patterns & Crime Statistics .docx

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University of Ottawa
Sam Alvaro

Sept 26 2011 CRM1300Patterns of Criminology and Methods of Gathering Crime StatisticsCriminological ResearchCriminological knowledge is based on science a logical organized method of obtaining information through direct systematic observation Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence info that is directly verifiableA research method is a strategy for systematically conducting researchConcepts variables and measurementConcepts are mental constructs that represent some part of the world inevitable in a simplified form Variables are concepts whose value changes from case to caseOperationalizing a variable is the process of developing the measure to be used in gauging a variableMeasurement and RelationshipsMeasurement requires reliabilitythe quality of consistent measurement and validitythe quality of measuring precisely what one intends to measureRelationships among variablesCause and effect is a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in anotherCorrelation exists when two or more variables are related in some wayRelationship between VariablesCauseEffect Independent VariableDependent Variable Limitations of Scientific ResearchHuman behaviour is too complex to allow criminology to predict and individuals actions preciselyBecause humans respond to their surroundings the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behaviour being studiedSocial patterns change constantly what is true in one time or play may not hold in anotherBecause criminologists are part of the social world they study objectivity in social research is especially difficultSubjective interpretation is always an important element in criminology analysis
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