Journal titles italisized and volume #, issue # in parentheses. An attribute that ppl have that is deeply discrediting. And effectively taints them during their interactions with other ppl. So a person with this attribute (spoiled identity) is reduced from the minds of other ppl from being someone that is whole to someone we"re able to discount that tainted aspect. All other things that comprise you are ignored cuz the stigma becomes you. Ex. religious doctor but the fact that doctor is socially idolized, doctor. Stigmatized by others cuz you belong to a certain race. Jews and gypsy"s not in one spot but when they move around they stay in a tribal stigma. Individs in an effort to avoid negative interactions will restrict themselves to interacting with other ppl that are stigmatized in a similar manner (they understand your social sitch) = actually reinforcing the stigmatized self-concept.