GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Epicenter, Seismometer

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Happens on continents or oceans but always creates ocean basins; 1- after being deformed, the material goes back to its original shape (elastically). If the stress is too strong, it can deform permanently. Side-note: stress = applied force, strain = deformation. Ductile deformation; caused by horizontal or lateral compression forces and creates wavy ondulations in rock layers (mm to km in size). Faults: fractures in rock (loss of cohesion because of deforming stress). Active if movement has occured within past 15 000 years. Brittle deformation: cracks in rocks where no movement has occured. Transform faults/conservative margins: no igneous activity, plates slide past one another. Strike-slip/transform faults: hw and fw slide beside each other on a horizontal plane. Convergent/destructive margins: plates move toward each other. Reverse/thrust faults: moves in a parallel matter to the dip of the fault. Earthquakes: caused by the movement of rocks past each other. 3- surface waves: causes horizontal and vertical orbital motion.

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