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the renaissance.docx

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University of Ottawa
Hernan Tesler- Mabe

The Renaissance (AKAthe Rebirth) Introduction Europe circa 1500 What are the general contours of Europe? Now: Large countries Then: Over 1500 royal lands and kingdoms and politically fragmented Crown of Castille and Crown ofAragon---Became Spain France; roughly what it is now Poland and Lithuania; kingdom and grand duchy Italy and Ireland- bloody mess Florence, Genoa, Venice Kingdom of Naples Germany; not yet unified. Small Kingdoms and Duchys. Russia; large body filled with smaller groups Ottoman Empire (Muslim population) Holy Roman Empire: Brought together by Charlemagne Compromise between Rome and Catholic Church in Western Europe and Germanic countries An evolution of a compromise between the pope and Charlemagne Holy roman emperor; elected by many people (Germanic countries elect) Europe circa 1500 Europe is largely Christian (either Catholic or Orthodox) Latin for writing, NOT speech Catholic Church controls western Europe. (Eastern Europe is Orthodox) Orthodox; does not use Latin; uses Slavonic languages Catholic: uses Latin as a common language The World, according to Ptolemy (1482) Vikings HAD been to Greenland; had not been back to Europe orAsia. KNEW world was not flat. (Or else Columbus would not have set out on his voyage) Mid 14 century; reduced between 1/3 and ½ due to bubonic plague TF Clears up space for developments of cultures. France: the most populous (16 million people and Paris was over 100 thousand) Italian: 11 million England: 3 or 4 million Germany: 10 million Low countries: 2 million 80-90% of the population is peasants (6% lives in the big cities; richer upper class) th New growth in 15 century; increases in trade 2 New Trade Routes 1) Mediterranean; Italian states trading with the east 2) Hanseatic league organisation of states (from low countries into Norway up the Baltic) Lots of optimism about future due to repopulation, increases in trade, exchange of ideas, etc Elite: optimism leads to the renaissance Poor: has buying power and can bargain to an extent for better conditions Optimism in reinforced by the great discovery and the protestant revolution. The foundations of the Renaissance Acultural movement that sought to improve human kind by a greater nuance in learning Return to classical texts; written well before the 1500 Advanced intellectual development of Europe Traditionally period had been described as one of growth and revolution Cultural sensibilities and ideas Kenneth C Clarke—Civilisation (Documentaries are on Youtube) Art Historian “Man becomes the mode of understanding.” Not really radical change; or continuity. Covers from the 14 century all the way to the 17 century World is largely directed by man. (Humans are in control) Why did it occur? Why do we see this change is sensibilities? The fall of Constantinople The bubonic plague Gutenberg printing press 1) The search for classical knowledge Constantinople falls in 1453. The Ottoman turks take the city and sack const. As a result, many classical scholars emigrate westwards to the east escaping the turks and settle in the Italian city states due to the intellectual freedom there. Renaissance is said to have started in Florence. Scholars start debating, and sharing knowledge. Explored new courses in antiquity from collected scripts on the way to the east 2) The Unique position of Italy Italian city states had been built on/around the roman empire As a result; have a daily encounter with the end of the roman empire Start exploring sources of antiquity. Also, because there is no unity in Italian city states, they are largely democratic and publicly controlled Trying to compete with “the joneses” ; local city states to show that they are superior to other city states (lots of rivalry and showing off your prosperity) If you are sponsoring works or art (largely to do with religion); you are a better Christian ***Loses 1/3 of population Anew appreciation for life Ins
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