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Department
History
Course
HIS2342
Professor
Naomi Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
HIS2342 11/01/2012 Long 19 century: 1789-1914 - Population growth and population stagnation in Europe - Population growth in central and eastern Europe, fewer in northern and western Europe - Urbanised northern and western Europe, while more rural eastern and central, movement of peoples both going outside of Europe and also within Europe ,due to various reasons - Some historians view turn of century as an economic depression: but not all European countries reacted in this way - Economic contrast between industrialized west and north, and agricultural east becomes much starker - Steel and chemical production, plus engineering breakthroughs, western and northern European countries were able to procure ships, arms and trains - Working class, doesn’t see a distinction between skilled and unskilled labour, mechanization - All workers became homogenized due to mechanization, standardized consumer products flooding the market - Some prospered, others suffered… mechanization brought forth new job opportunities - Landholding elites no longer the richest members of society, rather individuals make fortunes through financial services become prevalent - Some countries had their traditional nobility invest in these new financial services, perhaps entering these sectors by marrying into these financier families Nation state - Mid-19 century – throughout 20 century, nations have been struggling to form states th - Job of a state at end of 19 century, to convince all living peoples in its territories, regardless of origin, religious, ethnicity, or language that they belong to the state - Different states come up with different models on national belonging, try to emphasize national territory - Cosmopolitanism, changing class structures, political forms being challenges to the nation state - Socialist project being a challenge to the nationalist identity, by definition, argues that there is an international working class whose identity is its working class, supersedes any superficial identity - The catholic church also proposes an international identity - Minority groups within a nation - Feminists movement, poses its own ideological questions towards the national project - Socialists argue that the state is the instrument of the bourgeoisie, the state is a tool for the higher class to enforce economic domination - Socialist project argue that separate political parties must be formed in order to take over the state, some socialists believe that alliances must be made with other liberal, leftist parties to achieve goals, others disagree - State support for the catholic church will be a way of keeping socialism at bay, maintaining majority consensus Question of minorities and minority nationalities - By end of 19 century, minorities within European states began to make demands in defense of their own culture, religious, language rights etc. - These demands puts states in a difficult position, resistance would surely result a rebellion from the minority, if the state gives in to these demands, the state is undermining its own national project - Challengers to national project, Irish independence, Jewish independence, feminists, socialists - Imperial territories were important ways for empires to increase their prestige and power - Sources of economic advantages - Mass public education programs was a way for nation states to enforce a national identity upon the masses - Mass education was designed to teach the social position of the masses, encourage the lower classes to not challenge the status quo of society - Middle classes seek out education for their children in a way never seen before, education seen as a tool out of the middle class - Movies revolutionized mass culture at the turn of the 20 centuryth 19 century intellectual trends - Understanding the workings of society, and understanding why society is so dysfunctional - Degeneracy: the evaluation of an individual’s personality characteristics due to their physical characteristics, others claim that social environment played a role - The debate about the nature of individual freedom - Opponents: Emphasis of religious faith, homogenous identity, rejection of intellectual sentiment, religious sentiment, militarism 16/01/2011 Why was a diplomatic solution not possible in WWI? 1905: the first Moroccan crisis: German Kaiser travels to Morocco to display Germany’s displeasure about Morocco’s transfer to French control 1908: Austro-Hungarian Empire annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina 1914: Franz Ferdinand dead: Austro-Hungarian authorities attempt to crush Serbian nationalism once and for all: accuses Serb gov’t of organizing the assassination, list of unreasonable demands, eventually war occurs, Germany supports Austria-Hungary, Russian Empire mobilizes - The Schlieffen plan!!! - WWI was a zero sum game for unlimited ends - WWI occurred because European countries wanted to settle rivalries once and for all 18/01/2012 WWI continued - Central powers began to string together victories, western allies endure some defeats, French soldiers mutiny, allies in some trouble - Significant allied casualties, Russian defeat - 1918: German failure to defeat France before American deployment spells the end of the German Empire - Wilson’s 14 points - Russia was not present at the negotiations at Versailles - League of nations initially made up of allied and neutral countries, 1 vote 1 nation, a council of big four nations and japan, 4 rotating member states Tsar Nicholas II and his Family: the Russian revolution - Obviously Russia got pwned in WW - The serf system made Russian food production incredibly bad - Transportation, food production, etc. all directed to war effort, even though the Russian military suffered significant defeats - The left obviously didn’t like how this is going, demands for more power to the duma - Duma created in response to the revolution in 1905, Nicholas II had to create it - Although its legislative powers were crappy - Nicholas tries to dismiss the Duma in response to demands that the cabinet reports to the duma instead of the tsar - Nicholas II then goes off personally to command the armies, leaves his wife in charge - Rasputin is the advisor to the tsarina: the dude screwed things up, got murdered in 1916 - Germany encouraged independence movements across the Russian empire, to take advantage of this situation… in Ukraine, Poland, Finland - General strikes, revolution out of despair etc. - The Bolsheviks: represents the victorious majority party to emerge from the left wing party - Leader was Vladimir Lenin, advocated limiting Bolshevik party membership to a small core of professional revolutionaries, creating a system of centralized control of the party - Meaning leaving sympathisers outside of the party membership - The Mensheviks, unlike Bolsheviks, they believed party membership should be open to anyone who supports the party program - Mensheviks represents the minority faction - Leftist of the duma form a provisional government, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated infavor of his brother - The socialists begin to form their own government, creates soviets - Creates their own military discipline stuff, producing its own newspapers etc. - Soviets do not oppose the government initially, in fact they agree to try to work together in an assembly to establish a future permanent government and constitution - Obviously this falls apart as the two governments become even more polarized - Provisional government’s idea for land distribution would be to create commissions that would produce reports that would lead to debates about economic policy to create parliamentary decisions - Soviets obviously would just distribute the land to the people - The return of Bolshevik leaders really made things happen - Lenin differed from orthodox Marxists in regards to the steps to get to true communism - Lenin was less patient, felt you can skip some steps, and move directly to a socialist state - Argues that there needs to be a dictatorship of the Bolshevik party over the working class - Party dictatorship itself would be run by a small elite of Bolshevik party leadership - Bolsheviks go out to explain bolshevism to peasants, explaining the April thesis in the hopes of gaining their support when the revolution moves forward - Leon Trotsky, setup a military revolutionary committee in order to prepare for an eventual revolution, to defend the city of St. Petersburg in event of attack - Nov 7 1917, October revolution finally breaks out - Military groups organized by Bolsheviks took over key government departments, provisional government arrested - Meeting of the soviets took place the very next day - Lenin becomes president, Trotsky becomes foreign commissar, commissar of nationalities is Stalin - Initial meeting of committee, Lenin abolishes the legal rights of land ownership, the church, and the crown - The lands were given to local authorities to be redistributed - Lenin signed for peace with Germany - Bolsheviks are not successful all over Russia immediately, some new soviets created, the Mensheviks actually won some elections - Revolutions had to be fought differently in some areas - Treaty of Brest Livosk signed with Germany - 1919, communist party in Russia was the only entity capable of building a strong state - War communism 1918-1920, communist party consolidates its revolution - Strikes were outlawed, free market is replaced with a barter system - Government commissary is the only institution that can buy and sell food - Church and state formally separated, opposition parties are not tolerated - Bolsheviks changed name to communist party, and move capital to Moscow - Russia utilizes the Ukraine, Baltic provinces, Finland and some caucus lands as chips for their peace treaty with Germany - Loss of population, and economic lands - Obviously some objection to the terms - Russian revolution civil war - Western allies did not like what was happening in Russia, supported the white armies, Archangel Russians? - 1920, Trotsky implements military conscription, the red army is born! - Former tsarist officers were forced to lead this new military - Red army was able to catch some lands from white strong holds - White army is assisted by British and French, German fighters who remained in areas that were ceded to Germany in the initial peace treaty - Poland was recreated by Treaty of Versailles, the new state wants all of its former territory back - Polish – Russian war - White Russians were disunited, thus red army would obviously win - White Russians included tsarists, leftists – anti-Bolshevik. The white Russians did not treat local populations well - White Russians did poorly in urban areas, relied on a traditional base… - Red army successfully portrayed the white army as a proxy foreign force - Obviously Russia’s economics during civil war sucked - But hey, there’s always hope with all the Russians around - USSR was made up of socialist soviet republics including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, various caucus countries - Increasing division of labour worldwide, exchange which binds everyone to a global economy - Process of globalization stagnates Britain - Poor Britain was so poor after WWI, how sad - The problems of a large group of unemployed men: radicalization possible France - Economic problems different from UK - Inflation was the main issue - France wants to build big bad guns after WWI, silly Frenchmen… - This strain on the economy is detrimental for the people, weakness in international trade made things worse - The lower middle class suffered the most Germany - Germany suffered horrible inflation - German leaders convinced themselves that they were going to win the war, paid the war with loans USA - Americans living in boom years… hah! - Uncontrolled deployment of loans and lines of credit, unregulated market The great depression - European governments failing to solve the economic crisis, no long term planning - Tariffs!! That’s the solution! Yeah! - Abandoning the gold standard, hah! Welcome to inflation country - European banks begin to collapse, more countries abandon gold standard The interwar left (leftist movements during the interwar period) Britain - Large scale unemployment, loss of prior economic dominance, the decline of the coal industry in particular - Labour movements espoused by socialist movements, some advocating for a nationalization of industry - Some talked about nationalizing coal, steel, transportation and certain other industries - Nationalization some argued would help British industry produce more efficiently, because there would be energy spent on competition - The labour party however was dependent on the centrist liberal party - This dependency means labour party cannot push through its nationalization plan - Britain did not suffer significant tensions between the right and the left as compared to other nations France - Saw more tension between the right and the left - Sacred union between left and right during war ends - The left is made up of socialists and communists, some make up a government and support a welfare state, more radical strands of workers also included, and public intellectuals - Labour unions played out conflict between the socialists and communists - “socialists are not scared of change” socialists argue “communist ideals may not reform socialist project, but instead destroy it” “have to like republics” - The socialist argues “communism born out of specific experience out of Russian revolution, not necessarily useful for other societies” - “socialism shaped by national politics, communism has universal claims” “French socialism is republican” - “socialism is the working class” “communism is a party entity” - “socialism is revolutionary it means the transformation of the regime of private property to regime of collectively owned property” “for socialists, that revolution can only happen through the political system” “the political process is the means to an end” - “for communism, the political process is an end to itself” - “communist claims participating in politics is just participating in the bourgeoisie game” - By 1936, the French left was voted into power, despite the split within the left wing - The majority of French voters wanted the state to provide social services - The popular front was made up of some minority leftist parties, and some socialists and communists – a coalition - The socialists got the most votes - French left in power, nationalized many French industries - Resentment of the high taxes and power of the unions, business class began to turn against the popular front - Growing anti-colonial nationalism in France’s colonies, attempts at reforms to give more rights to colonized peoples, but not popular Germany - New radical response to German Weimar Republic, the Spartacus league: radical left wings, tried to use workers strike and national demonstrations to enact a revolution in the Weimar Republic - Leaders of Spartacus league killed Read the texts for the midterm Spain - Spanish civil war can be exemplifiethas the tensions between the left and right prior to WWII - Spain has particular place in 20 century Europe, not a highly industrialized country, only significant industry was textiles - Anarchist movement was a response to Spain’s stagnation, movement was most developed in Europe - Made up of the countries few industrial workers and peasantry - Military dictatorship ends in 1930, the king restores the constitution in 1931 - Spanish republicans win the elections, a republican-socialist majority - The victorious left declares Spain a republic, exiles the king - 1933, the right goes back into power… the left organizes themselves into a popular front - 1936: the Spanish populist front, the anarchists voted for the populist front, popular front comes back into power, tries to put in reforms - Franco remained dictator of Spain until 1975 - German, Italian governments supported Franco… leftist brigades created also to combat fascism - Spanish civil war represented the internationalization of leftist movements Fascism - Does not overwhelm most countries in Europe - Strongest fascist movements emerged in countries with strong responses to crises after WWI - A desire to re-establish nationalist sentiments 1. The place and the importance of the irrational, in fascist movements: Fascism is not based like other movements in a party program; fascist leaders relied on emotion, national destiny, appeals to racial/blood heritage. 2. The glorification of violence 3. Importance of the “great man” or “the leader” 4. Importance of “race”, German case is the most extreme case 5. Totalitarianism: the obliteration between the difference between public and private life - Some fascist states gain power through the military - Germany made no attempt to bring back royalty, although Italy had to gain support of the monarch first: and the pope Italy - Bad shape, veteran pensions failed to materialize for WWI vets - Protests occurred, Italian government spreads propaganda in which it argues that Italy was being robbed of territories promised to them - Mussolini was initially a socialist, changing of ideas… “relative retaliation” - Italian socialist party did not vote to support the war, Mussolini expelled from socialist party due to his support for the war - Mussolini began to associate himself with different fascist organizations - After fighting in WWI, becomes editor of his own newspaper, and organizes his own political movement - The black shirts… paramilitary militia - Italian economy doing bad, Italian left could not take advantage due to lack of unity of movement - Thus the fascist party began to emerge instead - Loss of independent media, many Italians began to obtain whatever news they could from fascist media - Mussolini enters official politics - 1921: Kings cabinet resigns when the monarch refuses to enact martial law, to prevent the fascists from enacting a coup - The march to Rome, Mussolini becomes prime minister, he became prime minister legally - With the formal assumption of power, Mussolini legally obtains dictatorial powers for one year, using a provision of the Italian constitution - Army forced to swear personal loyalty to Mussolini - April 1924, Fascists wins elections, takes over parliament with a majority, filling every post in the cabinet - Mussolini excludes the opposition from parliament, the dictatorship begins! - Women could not vote as part of the syndicate, men who could vote, can only nominate a name that is prone to be rejected: voting rights effectively abolished - Mussolini wanted to refuse imports, encourage tourism, reclamation projects and public works projects - Most fascist movements emphasize destiny - Italy was over populated, but Mussolini made it illegal to emigrate… the Italian state had difficulty supporting its people - Mussolini encouraged strong demographics, for women to bear many children - Bringing out the Italian spirit, encouraging the Italian peasantry - Jews in Italy were not seen to be a minority to be subjugated, many Jews were in fact supporters of the Fascist movement Spain - Franco fascism is inspired by Mussolini - Franco defined his dictatorship as a nationalist dictatorship - Franco found more in common with Mussolini’s fascism than Hitler, adopted many of Mussolini’s ideas - There were some conflicts within the fascist movement in Franco, although the original fascists were aligned with the initial Spanish dictatorship, wanted to align with Hitler’s fascism - In countries with no fascist states of any kind, there were extreme right movements Interwar culture… - Changed gender roles, change in feminist movement - Radicalization of feminism, Rosa Luxemburg - Luxemburg argues that bourgeoisie women have more to invest in the vote of their husbands, because they have nothing better to do - The bourgeoisie women’s existence depends on the existence of the working class, thus, bourgeoisie feminism is fighting for the interests of the wealthy - Holland grants women’s suffrage in 1920, Spain in 1933, however suffrage is only given to bourgeoisie women of a certain age, France gave suffrage after WWII - New ideas… the modern woman, representing the post war change in roles. Traditional mother figure also popular, pre-war social existence - Modern women is young, not necessarily feminine, dresses in male clothes with perhaps short hair, smokes, drives cars… etc. - This new woman is seen as a threatening figure, because she is able to do those things due to the sacrifices of men, this new woman does not need a man… the traditional mother is seen as having to suffer alongside soldiers - These two depictions of women also referenced in class terms - Modern girl seen as threat to society, traditional women seen as regeneration of post war society Health policy and immigration - European countries started passing laws supporting eugenics movements, Britain, Germany and eastern European countries were some nations - Allowed for abortions and contraception is encouraged, - “necessary regeneration of post war society can only happen by allowing some peoples to reproduce” according to eugenics supporters - Social capital is said to be as important as economic capital - France always worried about its low birth rate, having also the oldest population, eugenics movement never gained steam in France as a result - An immigration program was also implemented: first time that immigration was seen as a solution to the problems of labour etc. Modernism - Modernist movements began before WWI, expanded during interwar period - Dada movement: self-involved, disconnected from larger political issues, based only in destroying bourgeoisie art - Ideal to create art in which to scandalize the bourgeoisie - Surrealism - All this opposition, seen as communist idealists, although not necessarily communists - Film and jazz are two new art forms, crossing the high art and low art boundary - Jazz, film… surrealists really valorized jazz, considered one of the most intuitive art forms, they believed jazz, coming from Africa, represents a purer form, something primitive, context: primitive is viewed as something positive - Bauhaus, design school in Weimar republic, a trend in the interwar period - Bauhaus represented for Hitler and the Nazis everything they wanted to eradicate - Some artistic movements were associated with fascism Music - Cinema and music were good ways to bring high culture to lower class peoples - A subversive space if criticizing the status quo The rise of Nazi Germany - Most of western Europe were parliamentary democracies, after WWI, many of those collapsed by the end of the 1930s - Germany, because of its size, military power, and location allowed it to project German style fascism all over Europe - Racial elements, Fascism aside from that were modern movements, products of the 20 century th - They are mass movements, also movements that emerge out of parliamentary democracies - Where fascism was traditionalist, wasthhe social morals, return to old gender roles - Xenophobia, Fascism built on 19 century xenophobia , anti-Semitism, Jews were constructed as enemies across the political spectrum - Why was the right wing against Jews? Argues Jews to be hated because of their internationalism, and bolshevism… The left argues that the Jews represent the excesses of capitalism - Anti-Semitism does not necessarily mean Fascist - A fear of the revolution from the left, the most receptive to fascism were individuals who were angry about what occurred in WWI, and the fear of the left - Weimar Republic constitution formed in 1919, three distinct phases of the life cycle of the Weimar republic - 1919-1923: Weimar Republic in chaotic existence, attacked by left and right, trying to cope with the treaty of Versailles, and maintaining the state from derailment - First elections, the supporters of the Weimar republic carried the day, social democrats had most votes - Ebert, Weimar constitution created a strong executive, the president had significant powers, i.e. dissolution of parliament etc. electoral laws prevent smaller parties to easily gain office - Germany sought a temporary halt on payments for reparations due to inflation, the request was
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