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PHI3170 (20)
Lecture 8

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School
University of Ottawa
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI3170
Professor
Daniel Kofman
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct. 1, 2013 Three conditions which are said to be jointly sufficient for Q, if you want to give a counterexample to the claim that they’re jointly sufficient, you’d give an example that satisfies the three conditions but does not result in Q. -satisfy conditions but not Q If you have 5 conditions which are said to be jointly sufficient for Q, counterexample would be the same. To give a counterexample to sufficiency claims, you give an example which satisfies the conditions but does not produce the result (Goldman) If you’re told there are 5 conditions that are sufficient and necessary, but you want to show that they sufficient but not necessary, you show you could get Q with one of the conditions missing. Necessary counterexample – produce the result without all ‘necessary’ conditions -Q, but not all conditions One problem with Goldman’s fourth condition – causal link – makes the belief true and belief in P – deviant causal chain problem If x logically implies y and y is a cause of z, then x is a cause of z (If Jones’ owning a Ford is logically related to Smith’s belief that someone in his office owns a Ford, then it is a cause of Smith’s belief) 1. Ginet’s Objective: Barn Case – causal relation and correct reconstruction, but still not knowledge -counterexample to sufficiency 2. Replies to Ginet: no defeater, conclusive reasons -a defeater is something that, if it were true, would defeat my belief EX: fake barns 14.1 – Dretske: there can’t be any truths which, if I knew them, would defeat my belief [R is conclusive reason that P]  given R, -*-P (it’s not possible that not P) *-*(R^-P)] 14.2 – Conclusive reasons: nomic reliability (law-like correlation
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