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Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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University of Ottawa
Daniel Kofman

Oct. 1, 2013 Three conditions which are said to be jointly sufficient for Q, if you want to give a counterexample to the claim that they’re jointly sufficient, you’d give an example that satisfies the three conditions but does not result in Q. -satisfy conditions but not Q If you have 5 conditions which are said to be jointly sufficient for Q, counterexample would be the same. To give a counterexample to sufficiency claims, you give an example which satisfies the conditions but does not produce the result (Goldman) If you’re told there are 5 conditions that are sufficient and necessary, but you want to show that they sufficient but not necessary, you show you could get Q with one of the conditions missing. Necessary counterexample – produce the result without all ‘necessary’ conditions -Q, but not all conditions One problem with Goldman’s fourth condition – causal link – makes the belief true and belief in P – deviant causal chain problem If x logically implies y and y is a cause of z, then x is a cause of z (If Jones’ owning a Ford is logically related to Smith’s belief that someone in his office owns a Ford, then it is a cause of Smith’s belief) 1. Ginet’s Objective: Barn Case – causal relation and correct reconstruction, but still not knowledge -counterexample to sufficiency 2. Replies to Ginet: no defeater, conclusive reasons -a defeater is something that, if it were true, would defeat my belief EX: fake barns 14.1 – Dretske: there can’t be any truths which, if I knew them, would defeat my belief [R is conclusive reason that P]  given R, -*-P (it’s not possible that not P) *-*(R^-P)] 14.2 – Conclusive reasons: nomic reliability (law-like correlation
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