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Quebec Politics .pdf

8 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Luc Turgeon

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Key Terms • French Canadian nationalism • Conquest • Patriot rebellion • Survivance and “Revanche des berceaux” (Revenge of the • Cradle) • Quiet Revolution • Quebec nationalism • Bill 101 • Sovereignty-association Key Elements • French Fact in Canada ◦ 22% of people have French as their mother tongue (29% in 1951) ‣ decling, will continue to decline ‣ low birthrate ‣ notion of survival threatened ◦ 79.7% in Quebec (only province where they form the majority) ‣ declined a bit, mostly due to immigration ‣ % of French speakers increasing, anglo-quebeckers are more bilingual, versus historically ◦ over 85% live in Quebec, a lot in Ontario, 35% of popn in New Brunswick • Nationalism ◦ belief system that give special significance to the nation as a source of loyalty, a nation it wishes to promote and preserve ‣ nationalism can change over time as definition of nation changes ‣ "nations are imagined" - not real objective conditions, the real criteria is a group of people who believe they are part of a community ‣ nationalist is different than separatist • what it mean to be French Canadian narrowed over time (nationalism regionalized over time - concentrate on Quebec over time) ‣ at times led to problematic behaviour (ie. FLQ; mainly before 1970s) New France and the "Trauma" of the Conquest • est in territory that is today southern Quebec • France did not really care that much about New France, unlike Britiish who invest significantly • path to colonization was slow, and not a lot of people came • 1760: more than 200 years after Cartier arrived, only about 60,000 French settler ◦ New England: 1.5 million ◦ develop institution, feeling of belonging ◦ gradually started calling themselves as the Canadiens • Defeat of the French in the War of 1812 told as a traumatic event in Quebec history ◦ few "settler" groups that never made their independence from British colonialism ‣ ie. Americans separated, etc ◦ told as a conquest ◦ resiliant: learned to play political game (learned to play British parl game), negotiate with the crown, present as loyal citizens in light of the Am Rev (rewarded by legis like Quebec Act); original aim had been to assimiliate, got their own parliament Patriot Rebellion and its Aftermath • rebellions in lower Canada and in (present day Ontario) upper Canada • fight for responsible gov't --> legislations essential not followed • led to defeat and Durham report • Against Chateau Clique and British govt ◦ Molson ◦ James McGill • land distribution, economic structure • a lot of leaders in lower Canada are of anglophone origins • a number sent to Australia as a result • Survivance and the Revenge of the Cradle (ensure survival of French) ◦ BR 5.1; highest of any dvp nation for a long time ◦ Catholic Church: patriotic duty to have a lot of children • Profoundly transform nationalism in Quebec (conservative reaction to Durham report, rather than the original liberal rebellion) ◦ French to survive as a people with their own language, culture French Canadian Nationalism • Henri Bourassa • Young Rugrew? Lionel Groulx? • Characteristics ◦ French AND Catholocism ◦ special vocation as a people ‣ not to be materialism like the protestant ‣ ensuring survival, catholic roots, caring about spirituality ◦ Canadian nationalists + French Can nationalist ‣ want independence from the British ‣ mobilize again Boer War ‣ fight against conscription ‣ we should not go to war because British goes to war "La Grande Noirceur": Myth or Reality • the great darkness • Maurice Duplessis • industrial revolution happening all over NAm • "Priest-ridden province" ◦ church has a wide role in province • presented as being backward: economically speaking, one of the most conservative ◦ social programs post depression ◦ Duplessis saw ^ as communism ‣ saw evil because atheism, Quebec is a "free entreprise province" • "Unholy Alliance" ◦ between church and the richest Anglophone in Quebec ◦ church keep people quiet, the rich anglos make them the money • Backward, folk society • obsession with communism ◦ fear of infiltration ◦ fear of newcomers and immigrants - fear of the other (seen as threat to Quebec culture) ◦ anit-semitism • New generation: elite has very good schools (1 or 2 people per family, education reserved for the elite) ◦ Pierre Elliot Trudeau ◦ challenge the unholy alliance ◦ artist sign Refus Global - manifesto against alliance • Asbestos Crisis: new gen ◦ Trudeau became known ◦ fighting against Duplessis • Was Quebec that backward? ◦ Quebec Revisionist ◦ Quebec more industrialized than the rest of Canada, just not compared to Ontario ◦ obsession with communism in US ◦ anti-Semitism not unique ◦ unique bc Catholic Church and very vocal about antisemitism Quiet Revolution • 1959 Duplessis dies • 1960 election: Liberal Party of Quebec win "It's time for a change" • 1960-1966 • state took over social programs from church • start adopting more social programs • Quebec eventually become the most sympathetic to the Welfare State • Demand more power from the federal government (Duplessis just wanted to take care of Quebec) • unilingual anglo make more money than bilingual franco - dominanted by anglo despite majority status • gave franco more chance to develop economically • church attendance begins to drop (today, Quebec is the most secular in Canada) • most religious --> least religious • end of French-Can natlsm beginning of Quebec nationalism (separatist movement start) • francophone outside quebec feel abandoned The Rise of Quebec Nationalism • stress territorial aspect of nationalism • previously separatist groups were marginal • 1960s rise of political party dedicated to independance ◦ RIN, RN, MSA, and the PQ ◦ Renee Levesque (nationalisation of hydro companies) ‣ 1964 election based explicitely on the nationalization ‣ became unsatisfied with Canada ‣ common institution (EU type relationship) - propose new way of interaction bw Can and Qc • Linguistic Controversies and attmepts to find a compromise ◦ immigrants went to english school (made hard by church to go t
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