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January 14.docx

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Political Science
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Joseph Roman

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January 14, 2013 State Theory: What do we talk about when we talk about the state? 1) Why should we study the state? 2) Before the state 3) Towards the state 4) Origins of the state and how it spread 5) The institution of sovereignty 6) Key features of states 7) State territorialities Why should we study the state? - 2 reasons o State is often taken for granted by poli scientists, and we need to know what they’re talking about  State structures society o States are a part of our everyday life  Controls everything – so ubiquitous (we don’t even notice it)  A lot of state institutions are created to moniter our everyday life • Income • Departments of health • Etc. Before the State - Focus is on Europe - Grew up during the disorder of the middle ages in Europe - State is a new form of political organizations o 1640s- Treaty of Westphalia  Fixed boarders  External powers couldn’t interfere - Starts with the decay of the roman empire - Up until 1648 the roman catholic church was the highest authority o Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, he won a battle and then he declared that this conversion was the reason he won and forces everyone to convert o Now the church has enemies  Enemies of Christianity o By 1791 the Frankish Empire – Emperor Charlemagne does a good job of converting the rest of Europe o Eventually the roman empire starts to decay o This was replaced by the Roman Catholic Church  The fact that Constantine said everyone is Christian and the Charlemagne does the same meant that all those decaying organs of political life from the roman empire were filled by the roman catholic church o Most important reason why it was the dominant authority is because the church had revenue  Wider base than any lords, etc.  More secular forms of rule just couldn’t have the same power o Because of this material wealth, kings and lords always looked to the church for political assistance  This gave the church an added bonus  Jesus tells St Peter that his heirs have rule of the churches on heaven and earth • His heirs = the Popes • This means the Popes essentially control everything - The most important advantage that the church had in asserting its political legacy was literacy o Very important basis of rule was record keeping (paper trails) o Universal language- Latin  Never really needed to learn the local dialect that they ruled over - Had to have some sort of alliance with Rome to do anything o Catholic church defined society - Local lords were never agents of the king – alliances were always shifting o Local priests were always tied to Rome, no matter what - Power of the king disappeared once he was gone- not the same for the Catholic church - Multiple allegiances o Boarders were not definite prior to the 17 cent.  Didn’t see a central authority like today  A lot of ambiguity as to who the political authority should be dealing with • Should he deal with the king? The lord? The church?  Range of sub national, something national and something else national Towards the state - a long drawn out process - Treaty of Westphalia = key term - Most important event – got the wheels rolling o 1517- Martin Luther, 95 Theses o Not pleased with Roman Catholic church and their indulgences o Wittenberg Church o The first direct to papal supremacy in Europe o Individuals can have a direct link to God too- Pope is not needed  Triggers the reformation and the creation of Protestantism  Also triggers a war between German speaking principalities- those who agree with Luther and those who don’t  Protestants and Roman Catholics  Concludes in 1555—Peace of Augsburg • Recognized the legal split and the authority of rulers to determine what the religion of their citizens would be without pressure from others - All was fine until 1618 when the 30 years’ war begins o Chiefly religious war o Revolt in Bohemia – protestant living in bohemia were scared they were going to nd lose their religious rights because Ferdinand the 2 was Catholic o Neighbouring countries interfere in this process  Want to make sure that the successor is going to be protestant o War between Protestants and Catholics emerges again, between almost all of Europe  Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden, france - This ends in the treaty of Westphalia in 1648 o This is seen as the key document est. sovereign statehood o Est. the idea of sovereignty, also est. the notion of fixed boarders. Treaty of Westphalia 1) Est. the fact the a state has the right to go about its daily business without interference from external sources 2) A state’s subjects owe allegiance only to the state, and cannot owe allegiance to anyone else.  You can no longer identify with the Pope; you can’t decide to only recognize a protestant king, etc, etc, etc….  No more multiple allegiances 3) Secularises Rome  All the quarreling between Catholics and Protestants is over  Their authority is over  To this day Rome doesn’t recognize the Treaty of Westphalia - Key difference between 1555 and 1648 o Peace of Augsburg only applied to the ones involved – Germany o Treaty of Westphalia was much larger – all of Europe o This est. the geopolitical basis of sovereignty  Sovereignty doesn’t work if other states don’t recognize it  States must mutually recognize sovereignty Origins of the State and how it spread - Every single entity today is a state o Exceptions: Vatican, Lichtenstein (also a good place to hide money), Singapore - Took about 3 cent. To develop - 1989 = end of communism and international sovereignty - Political institutions around Europe spread 1) Political forum that Euro took was exported through colonialism - Look at maps that were colonised- incredibly straight boarders - Economic – one explanation as to why it spread - After WWII colonies start to make claims on sovergn statehood 2) War o WWII and decolonization movements = crucial to the spreading of the state  Euro powers= exhausted from war and could no longer take care of their colonies o If you could not defend your territory you were absorbed by stronger entities o After the 30 years’ war subjects basically started giving their allegiance to anyone who could give them order  Gets rid of all the multiple allegiances from before 1648 th th 3) Rise of Capitolsim (17 and 18 cent.) o Hel
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