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psyc lecture mar.12.docx

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Sam Alvaro

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Operant conditioning (OC): - Type of learning - Can increase or decrease Likehood of a response by following behaviour with reinforcement (or punishment) - In CC:  CR resembles the UCR  Learn that one event follows another  Uses a respondent behaviour: one that automatically to some stimulus - In OC:  Teach something new (not UCS)  Abehaviour (arbitrary) is being associate with a stimulus  Behaviour “operates” on (or affects) the environment by producing consequences (rewarding or punishing) Skinner’s experiments Law of effect (Edward Thorndike):  Association between behaviour and rewards stamps in/ reinforces the operant behaviour and learning is strengthened.  Strengthening of a behaviour occurs when a reward follows. Operant chamber (Skinner Box): - Animal (eg. Rat) in conditioning chamber  Bar/ lever, food dish and light - Initially explore environment and eventually presses lever - Get an initial (baseline) level of bar press. Then activate food release when lever pressed - Find rat will learn to press bar to get food - Find reinforces bar pressing Bar press = operant behaviour or “operant” or “operantly conditioned response” Food = reinforcer Reinforcer = anything which strengthens rate of the response Acquisition = operant followed by reinforce Extinction = operant not followed by reinforce Generalization = operant will occur in presence of similar stimuli Discrimination = can be learned – use 1 stimuli where reinforcement occurs and another where reinforcement does not occur Operant strength = strength of the association between operant and reinforce Measured by: 1. Rate of response Higher rate = higher operant strength 2. Resistance to extinction Upon extinction if # of responses increase = higher operant strength Shaping (method of successive approximations): Reinforce behaviour that approximates the target behaviour (gradual learning) - Can use to produce novel behaviour - Reinforcement contingent upon better approximations of the desired response Principles of reinforcement: have been used in humans Eg. Temper tantrums - Reinforcement is attention - Treatment is time out and ignore tantrum (extinction procedure) Reinforcement = leads to an increase in behaviour Reinforcer = anything that increase target behaviour Positive reinforcement = adding/ presenting a stimulus leads to increase in behaviour Negative reinforcement = Removing some stimulus (aversive) leads to increase in behaviour. Not to punish Punishment = leads to decrease in behaviour Punisher= anything that leads to decrease in target behaviour Positive punishment = adding some stimulus leads to decrease Recall: Positive = adding Negative = talking away Reinforce = increase Punish = decrease Note:Always identify the target behaviour Primary reinforcers: Innately reinforcing (eg. Satisfy basic drives) Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers: gained reinforcing power by previous association (pairing) with primary reinforcers (eg. Money) Schedules of reinforcement: Rules for providing reinforcement Continuous reinforcement: Reinforce every time - Best to initiate (for acquisition) - Fast extinction Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: Reinforce only a fraction of the time - Slow acquisition - Best to maintain as more difficult to extinguish Partial reinforcement effect: Extinction after partial reinforcement is slower than for continuous reinforcement Intermittent schedules: Fixed ratio - Reward after a specified (fixed or set) # of responses - High response rate - Brief pause occurs after reinforcement Variable ratio: Reward after an unpredictable # of responses (# is varied) - High response rate - Hard to extinguish Fixed – interval: - Reward after a specified (fixed) time - Low rate of responding, but increases as time for reward draws near (scalloping pattern) Variable interval: - Reward after a varying length of time - Produces slow steady responding Punishment:
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