Class Notes (839,101)
Canada (511,188)
Psychology (4,079)
PSY1101 (866)
Lecture

psyc lecture mar.12.docx

8 Pages
113 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY1101
Professor
Sam Alvaro

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Description
Operant conditioning (OC): - Type of learning - Can increase or decrease Likehood of a response by following behaviour with reinforcement (or punishment) - In CC:  CR resembles the UCR  Learn that one event follows another  Uses a respondent behaviour: one that automatically to some stimulus - In OC:  Teach something new (not UCS)  Abehaviour (arbitrary) is being associate with a stimulus  Behaviour “operates” on (or affects) the environment by producing consequences (rewarding or punishing) Skinner’s experiments Law of effect (Edward Thorndike):  Association between behaviour and rewards stamps in/ reinforces the operant behaviour and learning is strengthened.  Strengthening of a behaviour occurs when a reward follows. Operant chamber (Skinner Box): - Animal (eg. Rat) in conditioning chamber  Bar/ lever, food dish and light - Initially explore environment and eventually presses lever - Get an initial (baseline) level of bar press. Then activate food release when lever pressed - Find rat will learn to press bar to get food - Find reinforces bar pressing Bar press = operant behaviour or “operant” or “operantly conditioned response” Food = reinforcer Reinforcer = anything which strengthens rate of the response Acquisition = operant followed by reinforce Extinction = operant not followed by reinforce Generalization = operant will occur in presence of similar stimuli Discrimination = can be learned – use 1 stimuli where reinforcement occurs and another where reinforcement does not occur Operant strength = strength of the association between operant and reinforce Measured by: 1. Rate of response Higher rate = higher operant strength 2. Resistance to extinction Upon extinction if # of responses increase = higher operant strength Shaping (method of successive approximations): Reinforce behaviour that approximates the target behaviour (gradual learning) - Can use to produce novel behaviour - Reinforcement contingent upon better approximations of the desired response Principles of reinforcement: have been used in humans Eg. Temper tantrums - Reinforcement is attention - Treatment is time out and ignore tantrum (extinction procedure) Reinforcement = leads to an increase in behaviour Reinforcer = anything that increase target behaviour Positive reinforcement = adding/ presenting a stimulus leads to increase in behaviour Negative reinforcement = Removing some stimulus (aversive) leads to increase in behaviour. Not to punish Punishment = leads to decrease in behaviour Punisher= anything that leads to decrease in target behaviour Positive punishment = adding some stimulus leads to decrease Recall: Positive = adding Negative = talking away Reinforce = increase Punish = decrease Note:Always identify the target behaviour Primary reinforcers: Innately reinforcing (eg. Satisfy basic drives) Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers: gained reinforcing power by previous association (pairing) with primary reinforcers (eg. Money) Schedules of reinforcement: Rules for providing reinforcement Continuous reinforcement: Reinforce every time - Best to initiate (for acquisition) - Fast extinction Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: Reinforce only a fraction of the time - Slow acquisition - Best to maintain as more difficult to extinguish Partial reinforcement effect: Extinction after partial reinforcement is slower than for continuous reinforcement Intermittent schedules: Fixed ratio - Reward after a specified (fixed or set) # of responses - High response rate - Brief pause occurs after reinforcement Variable ratio: Reward after an unpredictable # of responses (# is varied) - High response rate - Hard to extinguish Fixed – interval: - Reward after a specified (fixed) time - Low rate of responding, but increases as time for reward draws near (scalloping pattern) Variable interval: - Reward after a varying length of time - Produces slow steady responding Punishment:
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit