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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1101
Professor
Najwa Haddad
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (Intro) Psychological science is the scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioural processes Why we need psychological science: 1. Limits of Intuition – can be misleading or cause error in judgement 2. Limits of Common Sense – common sense never generates new knowledge, so cannot help solve new problems. Hindsight Bias: Tendency to feel that conclusion was obvious once we know it 3. Overconfidence – people are more confident than they are accurate 4. Illusory Correlation – imagining connections when there are none This will effect cognitive processes: will pay more attention to events that support your belief of there being a correlation between two things, will remember those events better 5. Perceiving Order in Random Events - Randomness and uncertainty make us uncomfortable, so we look for patterns to make the world more comfortable The Scientific Attitude: Critical thinkers are Curious, Openminded, Skeptical, Aware of Biases, have Humility ( accept that you will make mistakes, leave your ego out of the way) The Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Theory (summarizes, organizes our observations) 3. Hypothesis Testing 4. Replication (retest results) 5. Generate [new theory or refine existing theory] Types of Research Studies (3) A. Descriptive Research Purpose: Systematic observation and description – do not intefere or manipulate variables, describe as it exists already Ex. 1: Case study – indepth investigation of a single person of a long period of time, do not change anything about them, simply observe and record Pros of Case Study: - completey cover and record detailed investigation, can provide glimpses into human behaviour Cons: - small sample size – danger of interpretting data through own biases Ex. 2: Survey – ask questions of a large amount, compare results – must have representative sample that closely reflects the population characteristics (Ex. If want survey to represent all Canadian adults, need to survey the same proportion/ratio of different ethnic groups in the survey as there are in Canada) – must have random sampling (people participating can't be chosen by the researcher) Pros: Large sample size, easy to give out a survey, reach lots of people Cons: People can lie, can misinterpret questions Ex. 3: Naturalistic Observation: Researcher goes into real environment, does not interfere with subjects Pros: sees behaviour that happens naturally, finds new things that might not have been predicted or seen Cons: could take a long time, could unwittingly interfere B. Correlational Research Purpose: To see if there is a systematic correlation between 2 or more variables NOT asking “why”, only asking: – “Do variables co-vary?” (if one variable changes, does the other change too?) – If yes, “In what direction?” (does one increase as other decreases? - this would be negative correlation.) – “To what extent?” (How strong is the relationship?) 'r' is the correlation coefficient, if r is +ve, then +ve correlation. If -ve, then -ve correlation. If r=0, no corelation Pros: Excellent first step to find relationships between things, can predict what will happen to one variable if other changes Cons: can NOT infer causality (can NOT decide that just because two things change together, it meants that one thing causes the other. Ex As a person's feet grow, their vocabulary grows). Also does not show direction of correlation. Ex. Does drug-taking lower GPA, Or does a low GPA cause drug-taking? C. Experimental Research Purpose: The only research that allows you to talk about cause and effect. (Why) Independant variable – variable that causes change in another variable, is manipulated Dependant variable – variable that is being changed, affected, measured Researcher will make a control group that is not exposed to independant variable to make sure it is the independant variable that is causing the change in the dependant variable. Blind & Double-Blind: Blind experimenting keeps subject blind to (unaware of) the most important aspect of the study Double-Blind: Researcher and subject both do not know the most important aspect Statistical Reasoning 1. Descriptive Statistics: Statistics summarize, describe, interpret data. Use histograms, bar graphs, percentages, etc. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean – average of all scores Median – middle score in an ordered list Mode – the # most frequently occuring Range = highest - lowest Standard Deviation – the amount by which most scores differ from the mean 2. Inferential Statistics: Interpret results, determine if they support hypothesis, make conclusions Determine if results are statistically significant. (P should be equal to/greater than 0.05) Chapter 2 – Nervous & Endocrine System Nervous system = Central Nervous System (spinal cord +brain) + Peripheral Nervous System (all nerves) The nervous system receives information, organizes, distributes info to body. Neurons = the basic units of communication making up the nervous system. 3 Types: Sensory – collect info from outside world Inter – Communicate with other neurons (many more of these than sensory/motor!) Motor – carry info from muscles Action potential travels from Dendrites (recieve info) to Cell Body to Axon (carry electric impulses) to Synapse (place where neurons meet) Myelin Sheath – insulates cell, speeds up electric transmission Terminal branches - release neurotransmitters Synaptic Cleft or Gap – Space where neurons are not touching Presynaptic neuron – neuron that sends messages Postsynaptic neuron – neuron that recieves messages Communcation within a neuron: + - + The brain is 80% 'water' (actually contains dissolved chemicals like K , Cl , Na ions, concentrations of which are constantly changing) Intracellular Fluid = the water in cells Extracellular Fluid = the water between cells When neuron is at rest: Concentration inside is overall more negative, concentration outside is more positive “membrane is polarized” Inhibitory messages – Tell neuron not to communicate - Hyperpolarizes (make inside even more negative, and less likely to fire) Excitatory messages – Tells neuron to communicate - Depolarizes (makes inside less negative, and more likely to fire) The neuron will fire at the “threshold of excitation” which is about -50mV Action potential = nerve impulse, an All or Nothing phenomenon: • Once a neuron fires, it will get action potential • Cannot fire at different strengths, only more frequently for stronger effect • Travels down axon in domino effect – self-propagating Neurotransmitters – chemicals manufactured by neuron Synaptic Vesicles (found in Terminal Buttons of neuron) – where neurotransmitters are kept Receptors – found in postsynaptic neurons, attached to neurotransmitters, recieve messages Process Presynaptic neuron has fired – action potential – terminal buttons – synaptic vesicles (which hold neurotransmitters, go to) – presynaptic membrane (bursts open releases neurotransmitters into:) - synaptic gap – postsynaptic – transmitters bind to receptor sites – message delivered (inhibitory/excitatory) – neurotransmitters deactivated (either Reabsorbed into neuron, or Degraded by enzymes) Effects of Drugs on the Brain Can effect synapses: -can effect presynaptic neurons by inhibiting release of neurotransmitters - can effect presynaptic neurons by facilitating release of [too many] neurotransmitters -can interfere with reuptake of neurotransmitters Can effect postsynaptic Neuron: * Locks & Mimics (drug acts like neurotransmitter, takes it’s place) * Locks & Blocks receptor sites * Locks & Enhances activity * Locks & Diminishes activity Drugs can be: Agonists – Enhance, facilitate neurotransmitter activity Or Antagonist – Diminish neurotransmitter activity Tour of the Brain Brain stem – relays info to & from brain Thalamus – center of brain, relays info from senses (except smell) to all body areas Cerebellum – responsible for balance, motor skills, affected by alcohol Limbic System – linked to emotions, memory, learning, motivation. Parts: Amygdala – emotions, emotional memories Hypothalamus – homeostasis, pleasure centre Cerebral Cortex – youngest part of brain. Parts: Consists of Left and Right Hemispheres. Glial cells – far outnumber neurons, provide structural support to neurons, clean up after them In each hemisphere – Parietal Lobe, Occipital, Frontal, Temporal. In each lobe – Primary: sensory,perception, motor skills, andAssociation: higher mental functioning (imagination, planning) In temporal = primary auditory cortex in parietal = primary somatosensory cortex, gets info of sensations from skin, muscles, joints in frontal = primary motor cortex, controls voluntary movement in occipital = primary visual cortex Every body part is represented in the motor cortex Our divided brain Left hemisphere = speech right hemisphere = music recognition Central Nervous System (CNS): Connects brain with rest of body. Reflex, ex to move finger from hot stove, comes from spine – spinal reflex Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Connects CNS to everything else. Two parts: Somatic: Carries info from all senses to CNS via sensory neurons Carries motor info via motor neurons Autonomic: controls the muscles not attached to bone, ex heart (called visceral muscles) Sympathetic – fight-or-flight, while Parasympathetic – calms body Endocrine system: Set of glands that secrete horomones('chemical messengers') into blood, travel to tissues, regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Sensation In order for sensation to occur, must be Detection, Transduction, Transmission thru Sensory Receptors Perception = organize, intepret in a meaningful way Bottom-up processing = start with elementary info, build up to full picture Top-down processing = interpret thru past knowledge Prosopagonia: Sensation with no perception (ex. Schizophrenia, hearing voices in your head when no one is there) Psychophysics – physical world + psychological experiences Absolute threshold – minimum amount of physical energy necessary to be percieved 50% of the time Difference Threshold: minimum detectable changes in difference in stimuli Webers Law: the concept that a just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus Signal detection theory ability to detect stimuli is not ONLY dependent on strength of stimuli Subliminal stimulation: below threshold for conscious perception SensoryAdaptation Tendency for sensors to respond less to stimuli that is unchanging, not threatening Circumventing SensoryAdaptation: body will stop adaptation to severe pain (so you dont forget it) and to eye movements (stationary objects would dissapear if we stopped eye movements) Vision: Lightwaves are physical (their amplitude is perceived as brightness) Colour is psychological Long waves = red Medium = green Short = blue Light –> Cornea (tough tissue that protects, focuses) –> Aqueous Humor (fluid-filled chamber, provides oxygen, nutrients) – >Pupil (opening in iris) –> Lens (focusing disc) –> Vitreous Humor (helps retain shape of eye) –> Retina (detection, transmission, transduction) Rods VS Cones in retina Rods Cones far outnumber cones see black,white & shades see colour detect movement fine details none in fovea peripheral vision mostly at centre several to one bipolar cell 1:1 with bipolar cells Visual Info Processing: (In order of increasing complexity) 1. Retina – ganglion cells process info 2. Visual cortex: detectors fire only if specific visual pattern is present. Ex only for vertical line Parietal Lobe: tracks movements, directs my movement towards it Temporal Lobe: recognizes objects Parallel Processing Theory: Many pieces of a task simultaneously processed. Integrate when done. VS Serial Processing: Step by step, ex Open folder, open file, etc Colour vision Young-Helmholtz theory: Trichromatic. 3 cone types – each activated by number of different colours, but maximally by R/G/B. Extent to which actived determines the colour you see All maximally & equal = white All minimally & equal = black Slightly more Blue = yellow Opponent process theory: by Herring:Afterimages by 3 antagonistic colour systems, neurons will respond to only self and antagonist Stare at Green -> See Red Red Green Blue Yellow RBYG are main colours. Hearing (Audition) **********here Pain Nociceptors = pain receptors. Detect, translate and transduce information about pain. – essential for survival – signal that action needs to be taken Gate-control theory: neurological gate in CNS in the spine Open gate (Small nerve fibers activated) = pain experienced Closed gate(Large nerve fibers activated) = no/little pain experienced Application: by icing or rubbing a sore area, you activate large nerve fibers and experience less pain. Role of the brain in pain: Brain plays important role in opening/shutting the gate. Belief-induced analgesia – strong religious beliefs shut the gate and prevent the person from feeling pain from a normally painful activity. Ex: Hook-swinging – hooks put in back during religious ceremony, but person feels only happiness because of religion and no pain.Afterwards has no infections from hooks,no bad effects Stimulation-induced analgesia – Electrical stimulation of CNS Stress-induced analgesia – In stressful, fight-or-flight situations you do not feel pain until afterwards. DO IN TEXTBOOK: P.256-258 + FIGURE 6.22 Smell is a chemical sense Scent travels to olfactory receptors in nose – does DDT –> to olfactory bulb –> to brain areas. There is less regeneration of receptors with age. Smell + Memories + Emotion – why is there a connection? Olfactory bulb sends info to brain including to the limbic system, which is associated with learning, memory, emotion. So the info from the smell is sent to areas associated with memory, thats why smells bring up memories. Anosmia – loss of sense of smell Anosmia can be an early sign ofAlziemer's disease. Psychopaths are also known to have a poor sense of smell. Taste (aka Gustation) is a chemical sense Food contacts the sensory receptors(“gustatory cells”, found in cheek & roof of mouth) - do DTT -> taste buds -> papillae There are 5 tastes: Sour, Salty, Sweet, Bitter, and Umami* *(newest discovered – taste of proteins such as fish or cheese) -All other tastes are combinations of those 5 taste sensations -Taste receptors regenerate every 30-60 days -Taste & smell interact McGurk effect: the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound and causes the viewer to perceive a third sound (2 different senses interacting) Body Position and Movement Kinesthesis – allows you to know location, position, orientation of your body in space – allows you to know if your body is moving/not, muscles contracting/not Sensory receptors: found in muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments Vestibular Sense: – sense of equilibrium and balance – monitor positions and movement of body & head as a whole – notices gravity/motion/position change Sensory receptors: located in inner ear (semi-circular canals) -> cause cilia to bend – DTT -> sends info to cerebellum Perception: Perceptual organization – select, organize, interpret info in a meaningful way Gestalt Psychology: founded in 1900s in Germany – a 'Gestalt' is a whole – Ex. The brain organizes info into a Gestalt (- a whole), we see a face as a whole face instead of as a floating nose and and eye and a random eyebrow “The whole may exceed the sum of its parts” – Perceiving is not passive – the brain actively constructs reality Form perception: Figure (the focus) and Ground (the background) – Psychological perceptions (do not ACTUALLY exist!) Grouping (done by brain): rules: Proximity – elements spacially close together will be perceived as a unit Similarity – elements physically similar will be perceived as a unit Continuity – elements that continue a pattern will be perceived as a unit Connectedness – elements connected by other elements will be percieved as a unit Closure – when an image is incomplete, the brain will fill the blanks Depth perception: the physical nearness to an object - partly innate Binocular Depth Cues: the brain needs both eyes to process depth 1. Convergence – extent to which eye muscles rotate so you an look at an object. Higher convergence = closer object 2. Retinal disparity – each eye has a slightly different view Monocular Depth Cues: (cues from one eye) 1. Relative size - object which appears larger is perceived as closer 2. Interposition – when one object is blocking the other, the object that is blocking is closer 3. Relative clarity – the sharper the object seems, the closer it is 4. Texture gradient – the more detailed the texture, the closer it is 5. Relative height – the higher, the further 6. Relative motion – objects moving faster and in the opposite direction are closer Linear perspective: When two parallel lines appear to converge in the distance, it is because of those depth cues above (relative size, texture gradient, etc) Stroboscopic movement: In TV screens, nothing is moving, we just perceive it to be – in reality we are just seeing a series of still photographs flashed very quickly Phi Phenomenon: When looking at flashing neon signs, there is no movement, but we perceive the alternating stationary lights as movement (because the brain constructs reality!) Perceptual Constancy:Ability to perceive objects as remaining unchanging and constant even if visual stimulus changes – ex when Olga is facing sideways she is still Olga) Size constancy: ability to perceive object as staying the same size despite changes in sensory input (Ex. Object moving away from you is still the same size in real life as it was when it was near you) Shape constancy: ability to perceive shape (ex a cube) as staying the same despite rotations Colour constancy: ability to perceive colour as staying the same despite changes in light conditions Lightness constancy: ability to perceive grey,white and black as staying such despite changes in light conditions Theory of relative luminance: one of the explanations offered to explain colour and lightness constancy When the brain monitors an object it sees not only the object but sees that object in relation to objects around it . Size-Distance Relation: Use size cues to determine distance, Use distance cues to determine size Perceptual interpretation: Q:Are perceived abilities innate or learned with experience? A: Experience is essential for perceptual properties of depth, size, shape (also improves figure/ground perception, colour and movement perceptions) Critical Period: period of time from birth when experience is absolutely necessary for development of neural pathways PerceptualAdaptation in Vision Ability of brain to adapt to visual world that has been distorted Ex. people wearing goggles that turn the world upside-down can adapt to an upside-down world! Perceptual Set: Aperson's tendency to interpret events/explain things in a certain way can vary depending on: Culture, religion, race, upbringing, friends, teachers, assumptions, own beliefs “we see things as we are!” a Schema: a mental model/representation of things, formed over your lifetime Importance of Context: Ex. Unscramble this animal word:AEP -> ape Unscramble this vegetable word:AEP -> pea SAME stimulus (same three letters AEP) but based on context of knowing that one must be a vegetable and one must be an animal, you unscramble them in different ways the Kuleshov Effect: Kuleshov was a director which believed that using the Importance of Context, an actor can make the same face in very different scenes and the audience will interpret the actor's expression in different ways Perception and the Human Factor: Human factor psychologists: Psychologists who use scientific knowledge about human perception to design appliances/devices/environments that better suit humans Is there extrasensory perception(perception without sensation, but not hallucination)? No. Telepathy: Direct communication between minds Clairvoyance: Perceiving remote events Precognition: predicting the future Psychokinesis: Using the mind to bend a spoon, etc. Parapsychology: Scientific study of the paranormal IV. Drugs and consciousness Intro: Psychoactive drugs – chemicals that influence and affect func'n of nervous system. Produce effects at level of synapse – can be coffee or heroin for ex. Synapse (refer to chapter 2) Addiction: when consuming psychoactive drugs in a chronic manner, very likely to be addicted Tolerance: chronic consumption can lead to needing more and more of drug to reach original desired effect b/c of Neuroadaptation: brain will adjust structurally and functionally to higher amount of drugs (make receptors less sensitive for ex) & organs adjust – liver becomes more efficient at breaking down alcohol Withdrawal: physical (pain and discomfort) and chemical (need drug for normal brain function) and psychological (craving, psychological crutch) dependence on drug Expectations - how a drug affects you is not simply limited to chemical structure of drug, but also your beliefs/culture/expectations of the drug will determine its effect Depressants:depress activity of nervous system (breathing, heart pressure/rate) and frontal lobes, making you 'happier'/more impulsive Alcohol - the equal opportunity drug – will enhance existing everyday tendencies (nice will become nicer, mean->meaner) effects of low doses - relaxing, decreases tension, impairs concentration, slows reflexes, impairs reaction time, reduce coordination, impairs judgement medium doses - slurred speech, drowsiness high doses - breathing difficulties other effects – reduces self-awareness/memory, shrinks brain, FetalAlcohol Syndrome, sexuality on neurotransmitters – GABAagonist (see chapter 2) - dopamine, endorphin, glutamate agonist TheAdolescent brain and early 20s brain is more severely and negatively affected (and more long lasting) than that of over 25 Barbiturates & Tranquilizers Barbiturates: promote sleep, reduce anxiety, decrease activity of brain centres responsible for alertness. GABAagonists Small doses - Feel mild euphoria Larger - depression larger still - death Tranquilizers: produce similar effects despite different structure - less powerful. Ex xanax, valium GABAagonists have lethal additive effect – ex mixing depressants Opiates: Endorphin agonists GABAantagonists – (leads to increased Dopamine release) Narcotics – opium heroin/morphine/oxycontin euphoria, contentment, relaxation, relief of pain. too much = brain stops making own endorphins Stimulants increase, speed up, enhance nervous system activity (heart rate increases, dilating pupils) Smoking: 30% of cancer deaths are smoking-related acetylcholine, norepinephrine dopamine affected strong positive correlation between mental illness and smoking second-hand smoking dangerous pregnancy and smoking dangerous damages DNA considered a 'pediatric disease' – afflicts the young! (youth targeted) addictive and has dual effect – excites the sluggish, calms the nervous Cocaine: seratonin, norepinephrine, dopamine affected euphoria, increased confidence. Then - chronic permanent depression Formication: feel there are bugs and worms crawling on skin Stereotyped behaviour: senseless behaviour repeated for hours at a time Psychotic episodes: paranoid, hallucinate, violence, aggression Ecstasy: both stimulant and hallucinogen dopamine, norepinephrine, ESPECIALLY serotonin ( increases release, blocks re-uptake*)affected *blocking re-uptake is Agonistic! From first use: Euphoria, energy, connectedness, increases body temperature, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrest, death Long-term effects – sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment, weaker immune system, depression, impulsiveness, heart problems, loss of ability to regulate heat, persistent anxiety Continued use – damage of serotonin-producing neurons, 20-60% destruction in human brains Animals – 4 days, twice a day ecstasy – most of neurons gone. Barely recovered in 7 years. + EARN POINTS p.97-112 Psychedelic Drugs alter perception and emotion LSD effects on neurotransmitters unclear derived from fungus growing on grain chills, muscle tremors, weakness, distorted perception/sensation/thinking (– delusion) mood swings, anxiety Marijuana + earn a point Influences on drug use + earn a point Meth emotion, reward, memory Near-death experiences: majority reported feeling as though they are dead, separation from bodies, going through tunnel/seeing light, seeing dead relatives/religious figures, extremely positive feelings –have been reported since Greeks. Evidence says near death most likely reflects physiological/biological Explanation: most symptoms are not specific to near-death experience feeling dead – Cotard syndrome people very much alive believe they are dead feeling out of bodies – happens sometimes right before sleep – Parietotemporal junction stimulation – LSD users report this as well seeing dead relatives – brain pathology/stimulation positive emotions – when brain is under stress it releases feel good chemicals – Ketamine/ other drugs tunnel of light – eye & brain oxygen-deprived – artificially induced – when brain is dying, increased visual cortex activity Learning change as a result of experience Ways to learn - Classical conditioning: learning/association between 2 stimuli Pavlov's experiment – dogs learned new association between food and pavlov (bringing food). The food was the unconditioned stimulus, Salivation the unconditioned response Neutral stimulus (no response). If Bell + food = salivation, then eventually bell = salivation The bell was a conditioned stimulus, the Salivation a conditioned response Higher order conditioning – ex. Red triangle => bell => food => salivation eventually: red triangle = salivation Acquisition: (^abt acq.) followed bell sound with food, did so repeatedly, with time the sound of the bell was associated with food, eventually sound of bell alone associated with food. Factors influencing – Frequency, Timing, Order of Presentation (conditioned first, unconditioned next) Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery: Extinction: If conditioned response is not followed by conditioned stimulus, association will be lost Spontaneous Recovery: after extinction has taken place, it is possible w/o any further training that conditioned response will still follow conditioned stimulus Generalization: similar stimuli cause same conditioned response Generalization can be adaptive maladaptive Discrimination: teach dog to salivate to sound of only one bell Chapter 7 – Learning Cognitive Processes According to Pavlov: you don't need to know an organisms mental processes for learning to take place. This idea was refused, by many inc. Rescorla: 'animals are actively paying attention and actively analyzing info, looking for most reliable info to learn, giving them predictive power. Pavlov:you can condition anything as long as you follow the rules Garcia: Idea refused. Biological preparedness/predisposition to learn is important. E.x. Biologically prepared to associate nausea with food/drink Pavlov's legacy: – Classical conditioning – Started scientific study of learning – showed that learning can be studied objectively – Infuenced John Watson (see below) Watson changed psychology from being study of mind & introspection -> to prediction & control of behaviours. Watson founded School of Behaviourism Application of Classical Conditioning Keeping wolves away from farms Giving children before chemo with foods with strange flavours to avoid having an association between unpleasantness of chemo with a food they normally look Sea Snail Onion breath + kissing Albert & the white rat Michael Domjan - red light district in Classical conditioning we learn that one event signals arrival of another & with training, sound of bell alone elicits salivating(conditioned response/Respondant behaviour) Operant Conditioning Learn to associate a behaviour with its consequences If a behaviour produces a satisfying consequence, its more likely to repeat. aversive consequence, less (Law of Effect) Behaviour is initiated – voluntary, not automatic – operant response Skinner's experiments used Skinner box – tiny apparatus with level Reinforcer - consequence that makes it more likely for a behaviour to repeat +ve reinforcement – e.x. Study hard, get good grade, receive positive -ve reinforcement – organism emits a behaviour that leads to removal of unpleasant stimulus e.x. Everytime you go out you get sick, stop going out Every time you shower you stop smelling – will keep showering Primary reinforcers – naturally satisfying, don't need learning or experience b/c they satisfy basic biological needs Conditioned reinforcers – require experience and learning to be valued. Ex giving $100 to a baby Immediate reinforcers – Consequence follows behaviour almost immediately Delayed reinforcers – ex. Going to school for 4 years, dieting for months before consequence Reinforcement schedules – how often behaviour is reinforced Continuous: every time – excellent to teach new behaviour, but shortly after you stop reinforcing behaviour will stop Intermittent: some times – Ratio (Based on # of responses) Fixed ratio: specific # of responses that must occur before reinforcement to take place, high level of responding, small pauses or Variable ratio: unpredictable # of responses that must occur, high level of responding with little to no pausing in between (EX slots) – Interval ( Based on passage of time) Fixed interval: specific time must go by between behaviour is reinforced – high rates of responding only around time of reinforcement Variable interval: unpredictable amount of time that must go by – steady slow to moderate rate of responding all the time Punishment – when consequence makes it less likely that behaviour will repeat Positive punishment behaviour leads to presentation of aversive stimulus Cat scratches, spray it with water Negative punishment behaviour leads to removal of something pleasant Cat scratches, take away its toy Side effects of punishment: Suppression (still exhibit behaviour just find less obvious ways for e.x.) Aggression Fear/avoidance Learned Helplessness (become passive) Does not guide towards more desirable behaviour Shaping behaviour Reinforcing successively closer behaviour until correct behaviour is displayed Cognition and Operant Conditioning Expectations, beliefs, anticipation, attitude, emotions, all important Cognitive maps challenge to idea that cognition is not important Cognitive maps are a great example of latent learning: learning that takes place without reinforcement, remains hidden until there is motivation/opportunity to display e.x. Unconsciously noticing details about the neighbourhood, not brought out until needed Intrinsic motivation (DOES NOT )Have to be reinforced by external environment ? Extrinsic motivation E.x. Taking a course out of need Insight – learning that takes place without trial and error – sudden understanding that implies a solution (Kohler) • smart crows Biolo
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