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Psych 1102 Notes.docx

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Najwa Haddad

Assimilation: existing schema used to interpret things you learn Accommodation: changing the schema so that the new experience can fit in ex. You grew in a culture where women cannot be fire fighters (that’s the schema) and then you come to Canada and there are women fire fighters . Since you will be living in Canada, you change your schema so you can fit in the new experience ex # 2. Children have a schema for sucking, then the mother gives the child a cup to drink out of, instead of a bottle. The child must now drink thus the accommodation has occurred 4 stages to cognitive development: Every stage is qualitatively different than the stage before it. These stages are universal and you cannot skip a stage (According to Piaget) 1) Sensory motor stage (ages 0-2) -children are learning about the world using their senses and motor skills to explore. They develop their schema this way -children are incapable of abstract thought -if you want to know what a child is thinking, look at what they’re doing (thinking and doing are connected/ the same) M AJOR ACHIEVEMENT : object permanence (knowing and understanding that even though an object is not near you, it does still exist) -Piaget underestimated children’s ability through this stage . Children are indeed capable of object permanence during this stage, and have an understanding of physics 2) Pre- Operational (Age 2-7) - Animism : belief that inanimate objects are alive (tables, chairs etc. are alive and have feelings and emotions) - Egocentrism : children are incapable of understanding that there is a perspective other than their own. Whatever they are thinking, everyone else is thinking the same thing - Literal Thinking: they do not think about the actual definition of things, rather how the definition was used Symbolism: use symbols to understand Major Limitations: -unable to perform mental operations (an action you play out in your brain) ex. You have a child who doesn’t know how to add. A child can learn 3+1, however they will not understand 1+3 -they engage in centration – they focus on one characteristic of something and ignore all others - children at this stage do not understand conservation. -conservation: an object and a person remains the same even though some artificial qualities may change (you have two buckets of the same amount of water. the child understands that there is the same about in both buckets. The water is placed in a thinner beaker and a greater fraction of the beaker is filled than the bucket. The water level is higher in the beaker. The child now thinks the beaker has more water than the bucket even though they have the same amount.) 3) Concrete Operational Stage (Age 7-12) -children can do mental operations now -they do understand conservation -no more centration 4) Formal Operational Stage (12-rest of lives) -thinking is going to become abstract -our logic is higher -hypothetical thinking is achieved during this stage Attachment -we have psychological needs that must be met; attachment ex. German King was intrigued by “what kind of language children would speak, if they were never taught a specific language”. The children were fed the best food possible, kept warm and taken care of physica
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