- Causes flu-like or ammonia like symptoms,
- It used be a common infection especially for young children but we have now developed a
vaccine against this pathogen we do not see many cases here.
Enterobacter spp. Also known as Cronobacter.
- Can be opportunistic
- Commonly found in cattle, cows and milk.
- It does not cause that much problems only when it is associated with premature infants
- Even though the cases are not that common it receives a lot of attention
- Symptoms: Pneumonia, Bacteraemia and Wound Infection.
- Often found in; INFANT FORMULA POWDER when you put water in it. Because that makes the
formula rich in nutrients.
- Usually they will make a small batch and use it right away because the bacteria can multiply very
- Main cause for ulcers.
- He drank the culture of Helicobacter Pylori.
- It is the common cause for Whooping Cough.
- It really impairs the breathing.
- There used be a live vaccine for this but the problem was that since it was live vaccine it caused
side effects in some small children. Some children reacted very seriously.
- Now some countries stopped using the vaccine.
- Most countries use the vaccine and not using it would have a much higher rate than using the
- Now there is a new and safer vaccine.
- There are 4 virulence factors he didn’t talk about that are on slide.
- Causes the Legionnaires Disease
- In the late 80’s in Philadelphia, there was a military veteran convention. Shortly after the
conference started they has respiratory illnesses and more and more cases we coming up.
- All these cases were found in this hotel or people that contacted people in this hotel and they
were old. They said up a disease control and try to decide what causes this respiratory outbreak.
They started doing a routine investigation.
- What is the cause? It was difficult to find and a few deaths were reported. They tried all the
known media and tried to find something that they were able to culture. They were successful in
landing on one media that they isolated a colony in a media. That was able to support growth of
a small colony now called Legionella Pneumophila. There was still the question though as to
where this bacteria came from and fortunately since they were found in this hotel. It was found on the roof top of the hotel and since the air conditioning was on and it was giving off a lot of
condensation and there were pulls of water. It is only found in a very wet and aqueous
- It is dangerous and is an airborne pathogen. But what is funny is that it is an airborne and it
should have gotten to many people?
- It does not pass from person to person. If the bacteria is living in the environment if someone
breaths it in in the environment then they can get it like while taking a shower or walking by it.
As it multiplies in the person and they cough and that second person would not get the
symptoms. The bacteria loses its ability to be virulent in other people.
- You cannot get Legionnaires disease because it has to come from the environmental source.
Fungal are Mycotic:
- They are commonly found in nature but are pathogenic.
- Ex. Moldy cheese, mushrooms, bread
- Fungus can be found in two forms?
- 1.) Multicellular form: Mold Form 2.) Single Cellular: Form a yeast form
- Multicellular form under a microscope looks like a plant, a root and a stem. Some special fungi
can exist it both forms; this is known as dimorphic fungi.
- Some Fungi can exist in two of these forms: 1.) Multicellular or 2.) Single-Cellular d