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Lecture 17

SOC 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Life-Cycle Assessment, Bourgeoisie, Systems Theory


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1101
Professor
Liam Kilmurray
Lecture
17

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Urbanism and the Environment
Urban Sociology: a subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and
economic structures in the city
Census Metropolitan Area (CMA): a very large, urban are together with adjacent urban and rural
areas that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that urban area
Migration
- Internal migration: movement within a geographical area: in 1867, 80% of people lived in
rural areas; in 2013 52% live in urban areas
- International: from one country to another
- Factors
oPull: Reasons to go to another countries because of what is there
oPush: reasons to leave where you are (religious oppression etc)
involuntary, slavery, religious oppression
- Canada: most of the 33 million Canadians are the descendants of immigrants
- At various times and places, people from china, japan, and south Asia could not come
- Current Policy: One of the most open in all the world
Demography: The Study of Population
- Demography: the subfield of sociology that examines populations size, composition, and
distribution
- Population: a group of people who live in a specific geographic area
- Fertility, Mortality, Migration, Population Composition
- The Baby Boom and the Baby Bust
Population Growth in a Global Context
- Problem: can our planet support our expanding population
- Theories
1. The Malthusian Perspective
oFrom Malthus (1766-1834)
oPhysical supplies (especially food) would increase arithmetically while the
population would increase exponentially
oThus population growth would outstrip the food supply
oPositive Checks: mortality risks like famines, disease, and war
oPreventive Checks: moral restraint
2. The Marxist Perspective
oWhy overpopulation?
oBecause capitalists want to have a surplus of workers so as to suppress wages
oOverpopulation would lead to demise of capitalism
oProblem with the theory: socialist countries have the same problems as capitalist
countries
3. The Neo- Malthusian Perspective
4. The Demographic Transition Theory
oDemographic Transition: the process by which some societies have moved from
high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates as a result as a
result in technological development
oEvidence: countries which have industrialized have had low birth rates and low
death rates
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