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Lecture 2

ANT214H5 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 - 7 - Major Concepts

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Madeleine Mant

NUTRITION MAIN CONCEPTS BY LECTURE  Intensive use of WILD cereals  Had sites of settlement Lecture 1: Non-Human Prehistoric Diets  Dates to remember  First hominin ancestor – 5 to 7 mya  Social Complexity and Agriculture  Homo habilis existed 2.5 – 2.8 mya  Agriculture is an occupational specialization,  Found in Kenya and Ethopia varying between cultures and its members  Increased cranial activity (not everybody became a farmer)  Adaptive radiation of hominids is during  Irrigation and plow agriculture contributed the Miocene 3 – 1.5 mya to a more complex, hierarchal society  Allows for investments in agriculture and  Homo erectus existed 2 mya – 200,000 ya  Paleolithic – 2 mya to 17,000 ya decreased infant mortality (population growth)  Not necessarily the next in human  Evolution of Teeth Size and Food evolution  We started eating goods that did not require substantial incisor use  Many populations did not adopt  highly crested teeth are good for agriculture  Ecology favored foraging for Inuits, processing tough items like insects and Ju/’hoansi.. etc leaves  flatter cusped teeth are good for chewing  Other modes of subsistence today and grinding  Consequences of Agriculture  no sheering crests are good for cutting and  Dependence of main crop and potential of slicing crop failure  A. africanus and A. robustus had similar carbon  Uneven food distribution (status)  Change in quality/texture of food isotopes however because of robustus’ cranial specializations, maybe africanus used tools  New opportunities for zoonosis instead of teeth to process food  Sedentism allows for garbage and human waste  Summary  High populations favor herd diseases (small  Hunting came later, early ancestors were poxes and measles) instead scavengers  Infectious disease/nutrition synergy  The “Paleolithic Prescription” Lecture 2: Agricultural Revolution and Its  Dental calculus  Thalesseemia Consequences  The Mesolithic Lecture 3: Agriculture, Biotechnology and The  17,000 to 12,000 years ago Environment  extinction of many large game species  Thomas Malthus  people are less nomadic, evidence of  Essay on population growth stating the settlement natural outcome of poverty and outcome + the doubling of a population every 25 years  The Neolithic without any restraints  From 12,000 years ago but this varies  Why didn’t Malthus prediction about the world’s population outstripping world food  Origin of agriculture production come true?  The Natufian Culture  Greater yield in food production  5 agricultural production methods we use today  Food is regulated by the  crop rotation government  natural and chemical fertilizers  Cons  commercial seed production  Farmers at mercy of world markets  winter feeding of animals  Yield and profit are paramount  improved transportation routes  Increased use of antibiotics and growth hormones  The Green Revolution  Bovine Somatotrophin (bST)  What is it?  a large increase in crop production  Increased milk production by 10-15% in developing countries achieved  Not approved for sale in Canada by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.  Risk to cows  Increased infertility  Post WW2  Increased udder interactions  Most important HYVs can be found among wheat, corn, soybean, rice,  Increased lameness potato, and cotton.  Increased antibiotics  Pros  Risk to humans  Was proposed as a mission to end  Allergic reactions world hunger  Increased of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)  Cons  Technology is not evenly spread  Linked to cancer?  Farmers cannot afford to buy seeds,  Mad Cow Disease fertilizers, equipment  Africa benefited least (major crops are  What is it? millet, sorghum, cassava and chickpeas)  Also known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)  Environmental costs such as degradation of land, demand on water  Causes a spongiform degeneration for irrigation, monoculture of species of the brain and spinal cord and loss of indigenous agricultural  Caused by a mis-fold prion knowledge (argo-forestry and crop  Has a long incubation period rotation)  What causes it?  Cattle fed meat and bone meal  Agribusiness  Contamination of human foods  What is it?  Scrapie disease from sheep and goats  agriculture conducted on  Recycling of infected bovine tissues commercial principles, especially using advanced technology.  Cases  the group of industries dealing  UK epidemic from 1986 – 1998 with agricultural produce and services required in farming.  Canada: 1993 in December th  USA: December 2003  Began in the 19 century with the - Cow imported from Canada Industrial Revolution  Pros - Caused Japan to halt beef imports from the USA  Efficient - 65 other nations had partial and  1998: grocers pull GM products full restrictions on importations from shelves, Monsanto launches as well PR campaign  2000: biotech firms form PR groups  British Epidemic touting need for GM in developing  1985 – animals started to fall ill world  180,000 cattle affected and 4.4 million  Pros slaughtered  Addresses nutrient deficiencies  Cattles are herbivore but because of (biofortification) industrial farming, commercial feeds are - Vitamin A deficiency combated used instead by Golden Rice  Soybean doesn’t grow well in - Golden rice deemed unnatural and indirect way to deal with Europe so they used MBM  1988 – feed ban is established so that poverty ruminant proteins are not fed to ruminants - 400 Filipino farmers burn it  Beef War down in fear of it contaminating other crops  Europe Union bans exports on British beef for 10 years (96-06)  Improve crop yields  Herbicide resistance  Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD)  Insect and disease resistance  Rare, fatal brain disease associated with  Cons presence of prions on the brain  Allergenicity  Brain develops holes just like a sponge  Do not know low term health effects  Long incubation period (30 years)  Environmental concerns  Usually affects age 50+ people (superweeds/bugs)  VCJD  Considered frankenfoods,  Variant form of VCJD unnatural  Ingesting foods infected with BSE  Variation of use by country  Resistance in Brazil  GMO’s  India disputes role of Bt cotton in  What is it? farmer suicides  China has low cost of GM seeds,  Foods modified by gene splicing unauthorized use  US, Canada and Argentina are the biggest producers  Iceland banned totally  Canada has 85 approved GM foods  History (corn, soya, tomatoes, canola)  1988: China first grow a GM crop – tobacco resistant to tobacco mosaic virus  Evolved Resistance  Superweeds resistance to Roundup  1994: US delays rotting in tomatoes  Western corn rootworm resistant to Bt corn  1995: herbicide and insectide in toxins US/Canada for soy, maize, cotton and canola  1980: US supreme court allowed patenting of a genetically modified bacterium  1996: GM Soybeans (Monsanto); Mad Cow controversy in UK  First domesticated in South America  Sir Francis Drake is credited for the introduction of potatoes to England  important because it allowed for the Lecture 4: Food Origins and Food as a Commodity industrial revolution, filled workers, was cheap and easy to grow  The Columbian Exchange  the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations,  Cacao (Theobroma cacao) technology, and ideas between the  Originated in the Aztec empire  Brought to Spain by Columbus Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to  Europe introduced the cacao tree to European colonization and trade after Indonesia and West Africa Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.  Allowed for new species to come into  Vanilla the Old World  Fruit of the Vanilla panifolia (orchid family)  Initiated the New World to dedicate  Tropical forests of Mesoamerica land to cultivate crops for export (sugar, coffee, soy, bananas)  No flavor/scent until processed (needs fermentation)  most important animal coming from  First a luxury Europe to the America were the horses. Horses affected the life of many  Other producers include Mexico, Indonesia, people's lives, people started hunting Madagascar and China bison and territory increase - they started becoming associated to status  Sugar Cane and wealth.  Old World crop brought to New World by  Europeans also brought over Spanish, then Portuguese tumbleweeds, Dutch elm disease,  Consumed first in tea syphillis, smalll pox  19th century: in processed foods  Triangle trade  Crops often succeed in new regions because of similar climates that are  Christopher Columbus brought sugar available and new environment cane to the Caribbean where it was deterring predators/pests grown to abundance which started - Coffee, soybeans and oranges the slave trade are now produced in the new  1st part of triangle: sugar cane world even though its origins are  2nd European goods (rum) in the old world  3rd slaves  Capsicum Peppers  3 processes of dietary change  Used in food seasoning  worldwide spreading of domesticated plant  Vitamins A B and C and animal varieties  Magnesium and iron  rise of distribution networks and food  Aids digestion, stimulates appetite by processing industries increasing flow of saliva and gastric acids  migration of people from rural to urban  Helps to liven up bland staples centers and from continent to continent  Medicinal use  Originated in Mesoamerica civilizations  Delocalization  Two types;  Potatoes  Dependence on gasoline-fueled  Goods holds the cultural system together by equipment - reduction of local providing ritualistic reference points autonomy of energy resources  Consumption is a basic ritual and therefore  Increased sensitivity of prices to a necessary constituents of culture political fluctuations anywhere in global energy and food network  Consumer Power  Effects of delocalization depends on  Boycott of Kraft use for the use of yellow socioeconomic class food dye in Kraft dinner  lucky to live in a place that gives us  Demand for labeling and organic foods so many different types of foods  Nestle Boycott in 1977 however access to this food depends on your wealth  INFACT raised awareness for Nestle breast feeding baby formula saying  Commodification it cannot replace real breast milk. Might confuse mothers coming  The act of making something a luxury, from illiterate countries therefore food is bought and is not a right  IBFAN (international baby food  A commodity has use value and economic value action network)  What is the maximum of value that people are willing to pay for food? - how price is  Palm Oil determined  ‘the power of brands is shaping our food  Economically important to Malaysia and Indonesia habits’  Contribute as a threat to orangutans  Impact on indigenous people  Commoditization  The literal act of buying/selling food  Cheaper than butter and other trans-fat  Allows for delocalization  Maximum yield = maximum product Lecture 5: Food and Adaptation  At the expensive of people or  History of dairy production environment  Origins in the Old World  Pictorial evidence from the Sahara  Industrial Food Processing Desert (Neolithic)  Pros:  Extraction of lipids from Neolithic vessels  Improved nutrition distinguishes between dairy fat vs adipose - Decreases famine becauase of fats transportation  4500 BCE: dairy in Britain - Enhanced by fortification  600 BCE: dairy in SE Europe - Increase of food variety  milking populations  Cons:  Europe (north and central)  Food is a privilege instead of right  South Asia (India, Tibet and  Some foods replacing quality foods Mongolia)  Have hidden fats, sugars, salts  Masai and Fulani in Africa  Lead to cash cropping and  Siberia decrease in food variety  Non milking populations  New world populations  Goods and Culture  Eastern Asia (China and Japan)  1/3 of African continent is non-  Early people processed foods like yogurt milking and cheese which contains less lactose  Then moved on to consuming unprocessed  3 reasons to not adopt dairying milk  ecological reasons  Natural selection selected for this mutation  Africa has tsetse borne sleeping and so it increased in the population sickness that kills cattles  Has to save grazing land for crops  Lactose and plough animals  Is a sugar that is found milk  cultural reasons  Lactose is often added to prepared foods,  distaste for drinking milk (seems and people with very low tolerance for like urine) lactose may develop symptoms when they
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