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Lecture 8

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR353H5
Professor
Grace Barakat
Semester
Winter

Description
How is social capital measured? • Any activity that creates that social bond between people. ◦ Community improvement ◦ Social networking ◦ Value of life ◦ Precepts of community ◦ Participation ◦ Personal recreation ◦ Bonding ◦ Citizen power • Social capital and health ◦ Kawachi: us social capital was shrinking ◦ People tended to spend less time on informal socializing ◦ Socially isolated individuals are at increased risk of health outcomes ◦ Poor mental health in general ◦ Mechanisms: lack of social support • Evidence linking social capital to health ◦ 39 states - levels of interpersonal trust, norms of reciprocity, density of associations, membership ◦ Findings: ‣ Average per capita group membership- mortality rate ‣ Participation in civic association- more trust ‣ Level if mistrust was related to mortality rates ‣ Low social capital people rated their own health as poor (perceived health, self rated health) ◦ Mechanisms operate at various levels : good social capital at different levels ‣ At a state level • Via political power ‣ At a neighbourhood level • Informal social control • Maintenance of health norms • Provision if access to various form of social support (like babysitting and reciprocating) ◦ Suggested reasons for decreased social capital ‣ Competition ‣ Selfishness ‣ Different cultural values ‣ Communication technology ‣ Lifestyle like cars and not walking and inetracting with people ‣ Less neighbourhood events and community causes ‣ Disruption or family and marriage ties ‣ Time ossified related to two individuals working ‣ Movement of women into the labour force ‣ Residential mobility and suburbaniz
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