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04 The Development of British North America.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Richard White

04 The Development of British North America American Revolution  The rebels did invade the province of Quebec in 1776. They got minimal support in the countryside and was defeated by the fort of Montreal  In the end, the rebels won, the British won and the New United States was created in 1783 o Now things are absurd for the British because most of the French territory was now their colonies as their main territory. The ones that they used to have were all United States  “British North America” o British America was used because British North America was used prior to 1783. They are the same thing o Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Rupert‟s Land, St. John‟s Island, Disputed Territory was what was left of British North America  French Territory – Saint-Pierre & Miquelon, fishing rights  Spanish Territory – Florida, Louisiana  Independent – United States of America  Loyalists o Migration of the Loyalists into British North America o In any large revolution, the society is divided. One side will support the Americans and another against o There were hundreds of thousands of people who opposed the United States of America. When the revolution wins, these people are in trouble. They fought and sympathized on the wrong side, and therefore families were divided  When the war was over, there was a disruption in many parts  People who sided with the British had left o The major migration was to British North America, and to Britain. A fair number of them went to British North America  British had promised that for anyone who is willing move, they would be compensated by Britain o The largest number of these loyalists migrated from United States to Nova Scotia. The reason is because when the war ended, the last territory that they held was New York City. When the war ended, these people were on the seacoast of New York were with British forces, and moved them by sea out to the Atlantic and into Nova Scotia  30,000 people were moved from New York to Nova Scotia in 1783 – 1784 o Planters – odd English term to describe settlers who established farming and planation in the new land. These new England planters from generations back were already there  The population at the time was only 20,000. Then, suddenly 30,000 people would come in one year  They initially went to the south shore of Nova Scotia (Port Roseway)  The south shore is scenic and charming, but the soil is not hospitable and therefore people moved further  People did not stay there, within a year or so, they moved to Halifax and also into the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick) o New Brunswick was the new colony to accommodate these new migrants  These new people were seen as the conservative population and British to the heart by the United States. Now, it is still rolled over to Canadians. o However, this is dead wrong. The fact is that very few loyalists who went to Nova Scotia were of the middle class or lower. They were hard to characterize because people were extremely diverse  There was a diverse amount of people, and assortment of preindustrial people. Most of these people were not farmers – they were either tradesmen or merchants o 3,000 of the 30,000 were Black. These were slaves in former American colonies that were promised freedom if they stay loyal to the British. They accepted this migration and settlement assistance  They were free, but were terribly disadvantaged under racist law. Many of them did not stay in Nova Scotia because there was a colonization for slaves to return to Africa (Sierra Leone) o Many of the people who end up in Halifax were because of later migration, but there is a continuous history since this time. o These people were not conservatives but were commercially oriented, and politically they became progressives  They had a great impact on the politics o Another 10,000 loyalists in the Atlantic seacoast retreated back to the British border into the province of Quebec. A fair number of them crossed in the Niagara frontier. This was another phenomenon entirely because these people were actually farmers of Western New York.  They did not want to stay in the province of Quebec because of the Quebec act. This was because people who lived there did not have private property and spoke French  Therefore, they came further east into a township – “Eastern Township” – a contrast to the seugneurial land o British also asked them to go to Lake Ontario  7500 people had arrived in 1785  To facilitate this, the British bought land from the aboriginals so that loyalists were able to stay  There were scattered tents; the British had given them equipment, seeds and so on. However, they were still loyalist camps and were not permanent. o There were also Natives that were Iroquois that came from New York. Canada  Constitutional Act o The British agreed to separate Canada into different colonies, 1791 o Divided the province of Canada into Upper and Lower Canada o Not a harmful thing to these Canadian institutions 1. Created British Canada 2. It created duality, but there was no stress to make it equal 3. Appointed senate – the constitutional act of 1791 created it for better or worse  Upper Canada o Can be privately owned o Given elected assemblies  Roman Catholics can sit in the assembly o By creating Upper Canada, it is the founding of British Canada (1791)  Whereas, French Canada was founded before  It is not the first English colonization, but just English Canada o At first, upper Canada was only an appendage of Canada  The governor had resided in Quebec, then there were a lieutenant governor was in charge of Canada  However, it grew so quickly. When Canada was divided, Upper Canada had only 10,000 people while Lower Canada had 100,000. By 1800 (10 years later), population was 40,000  By the war of 1812, there were over 100,000  Upper Canada is growing up faster than lower Canada, and before long it grew equal in size o The foundation of the growth was agricultural settlement. There were free land grants for people who wanted to settle. The British hired surveyors to cover the grid of Canada. The whole of southern Ontario is laid out into a straight grid  They had to do this because of demarking of land in order to give out land  The roads were laid out every concession of land  This was very successful. It attracted Americans from the other side of the border. The movement that began with the loyalists coming in with government aid continued to the 1790s and beyond  By 1812 when population was around 136,000, 80% of the population was American o The economy was very elementary at first. Trees that were cleared off were close to nothing. At the first generation, they cleared the trees and burned the trees into pot-ash  You can get a few cents for a pot of ash. This was the only way people were able to get cash  Over the course of 20 to 30 years, they were able to build a house  Hinges and glass were needed, and therefore foreign trade was needed  This boosted the economy as the population kept growing  This was the process of creating an agricultural place from nothing. It took a course of two generations of physical labor  Land was cleared from 1 to 4 acres per year depending on how many young adult s
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