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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Italian Grammar, Demonstrative, La Pesca

4 pages409 viewsFall 2015

Department
Italian
Course Code
ITA100Y5
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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ARTICLES
DEFINITE ARTICLES
Italian Grammar
Italian Grammar
• Introduce and define
nouns
• Agree with nouns
gender and number
• The articles may be
definite or indefinite
Definite articles are used to
designate specific persons or
things (Il gatto miagola.
[The cat meows.]) or to
indicate a category (Il cane è un
animale domestico. [Dogs are
domestic animals.])
Singular Plural
Masculine il i
lo (l’ before vowels) gli [The]
Feminine la (l’ before vowels) le
Partitives
(articoli partitivi)
Masculine un dei / degli
uno degli
Feminine una (un’ before delle
vowels)
Il and iare used before masculine nouns
beginning with most consonants (il
tavolo / i tavoli [the table / the tables])
Lo before nouns beginning with vowels
becomes l’ (l’albero [the tree])
La and le are used before feminine
nouns (la gonna / le gonne [the skirt /
skirts])
La before nouns beginning with vowels
becomes l’ (l’anima [the soul]
Lo and gli are used before masculine
nouns beginning with vowels or
beginning with sfollowed by a
consonant, z, ps (lo stadio / gli stadi, lo
zaino / gli zaini, lo psicologo / gli psicologi
[the stadium / stadiums, the knapsack /
knapsacks, the psychologist /
psychologists])
Un is used before masculine nouns
beginning with most consonants or
before vowels (un libro, un uccello
[a book, a bird])
Uno is used before masculine nouns
beginning with: sfollowed by a
consonant, z, ps (uno sbaglio, uno
zoppo [a mistake, a lame])
Una is used before feminine nouns
and becomes un’ before vowels (una
matita, un’artista [a pencil, an artist])
• The indefinite articles are used only
before singular nouns
• As the plural one can use the partitives
dei, degli, delle that are expressed in
English by some or any
INDEFINITE ARTICLES
• The indefinite articles
designate persons or things
that are not specific or that
are used generically
(Un uomo ha bussato alla
porta. [A man knocked at the
door.])
USAGE
Articles generally introduce common nouns (la sciarpa / il vento / una ragazza
[the scarf / the wind / a girl])
Articles are also used with:
• Most proper geographic nouns referring to
rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, mountains,
countries and continents (il San Lorenzo, il
Mediterraneo, le Alpi, l’Europa)
• Courtesy or professional titles (Conosco la
signora Marini. / Sono l’avvocato Rossi.
[I know Mrs. Marini. / I am Rossi, the
lawyer.])
• Teams in sports or other competitions (la
Juventus, il Real Madrid, il Manchester United)
• Adjectives or other parts of speech used as
nouns (Il bello deve ancora arrivare. [The best
has yet to come.])
• Female names, although not compulsory
(La Silvestri non è in ufficio oggi. [Ms. Silvestri
is not in her office today.])
Articles are generally not used:
• In direct speech (Buongiorno
dottore./ Come sta signora?
[Good morning doctor. / How
are you madam?]), except
formal introductions (Sono la
signora Mauro. [I am Mrs.
Mauro.])
• Names of persons: Paolo, Maria
• Names of cities: Roma,
Montreal, Melbourne
• Signs of stores or public offices
(bar, farmacia, ufficio postale
[bar, pharmacy, post office])
• Days and months (Sabato vado
in palestra. [Next Saturday I
will go to the gym.])
Note: There are many exceptions for article usage; for instance, we may use the
articles with the days and the months, but the meaning changes (Il sabato vado in
palestra. [On Saturdays I go to the gym.])
NUMBERS
• The Italian alphabet has 21 letters
• The letters j, k, w, x, y are usually found in
words that have been borrowed from other
languages
AaNenne
Bbi Oo
Cci Ppi
Ddi Qqu
EeRerre
Feffe Sesse
Ggi Tti
Hacca Uu
IiVvu
Lelle Zzeta
Memme
0zero 21 ventuno
1uno 30 trenta
2due 31 trentuno
3tre 40 quaranta
4quattro 50 cinquanta
5cinque 60 sessanta
6sei 70 settanta
7sette 80 ottanta
8otto 90 novanta
9nove 100 cento
10 dieci 101 centouno
11 undici 200 duecento
12 dodici 300 trecento
13 tredici 400 quattrocento
14 quattordici 500 cinquecento
15 quindici 600 seicento
16 sedici 700 settecento
17 diciassette 800 ottocento
18 diciotto 900 novecento
19 diciannove 1000 mille
20 venti 2000 duemila
1,000,000 un milione
1primo 7settimo
2secondo 8ottavo
3terzo 9nono
4quarto 10 decimo
5quinto 11 undicesimo
6sesto 12 dodicesimo
CARDINAL
ORDINAL
© 2003-2013 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ITALIAN GRAMMAR • 1-55080-774-9 1
TM
permacharts
www.permacharts.com
2nd EDITION
ALPHABET
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