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SOC307H5 (49)
Lecture

Psychological Explanations of Crime
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC307H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Semester
Summer

Description
SOC307 July 11th Psychological Explanations of Crime Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) - psychoanalysis: depth psychology - basic assumption: most important factors influencing one’s personality and life are deep in the unconscious o unconscious support – personality - Freud’s practise began by: o was a neurologist first o was looking for a treatment for hysteria – a form of neurosis (neurotic disorder) o mental disorders involving distress o definite symptom: anxieties o depression, chronic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, phobias, personality disorders Hysteria - unmanageable fear or emotional excesses - Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) - French neurologist - Treated patients who were suffering from a variety of unexplained physical symptoms o Paralysis, seizures, contractures o Picture: Hysterical Seizure - concluded patients were suffering from a form of hysteria - had been caused by their emotional response - to a traumatic accident - in their past o fall from a scaffold, a railway crash… Diagnosis - patients suffered not from the physical effects of the accident - but from the idea they had formed of it Freud borrowed from Charcot - main forms of neurosis came about when: o a traumatic experience led to process of unconscious symptom-formation Picture: Anna O - 21 years old who had fallen ill while nursing her father - her illness began with a severe cough - subsequently developed a number of other physical symptoms o paralysis, hallucinations… Breuer’s Diagnosis - a case of hysteria - cure: o recreate the memory of the incident which had originally led to it o bring about emotional release o by inducing the patient to express any feeling associated with the event Birth of Psychoanalysis - Freud connected: o Breuer’s “ talking cure” with Charcot’s views of traumatic experiences First Theory: Seduction Theory - patients remembered incidents of childhood sexual abuse o repressed those memories - explained some, but not all cases of hysteria Second Theory - Freud learned: o Majority complained of sexual problems - he argued: o problems resulted from cultural restrictions on sexual expressions o repression of sexual wishes and fantasies o cultural taboos on sexuality o unexpressed sexual desires o expressed as hysteria - if you want to know people’s darkest desires, look at their dreams - he realized: o patients’ memories were constructed exaggerations o a deeper reality was hidden behind these o if expressed itself, but did not want to be known o disguising itself o Freud tried to find its structure Structure of the Psyche/Mind - ID o unconscious o location of instincts: desires, aggressive, impulses, needs (food, sex) o what we are born with – inherited o control thoughts of feelings of individuals o the operating system – imperative since birth o ruled by pleasure/pain principle  maximize pleasure and minimize pain o without a sense of time o completely irrational o primarily sexual, infantile o will not take “no” for an answer o immediate gratification o it is also a repository (vault) for:  memories and thoughts that are repressed  person is averse to knowing  socially unacceptable • ideas, wishes and desires, traumatic memories, and painful emotions o express themselves in:  hysteria, neurosis o amoral and selfish  moral: follows sense of right/wrong, good/bad  immoral: ignores good/bad  amoral: morality does not apply • ex. child, monkey, dog… - EGO o a part of ID  emerged out of the ID o modified by influence of external world o realistic part of the psyche o reason, rationality, common sense o needed to control the ID o Freud wrote of ego:  “In its relation to the ID, it is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of its horse” o mediates between:  id, superego (external world) o balance between:  ID’s passions  demands of society  demands of morality o main concern: safe satisfaction of ID`s desires o concerned with consequences of actions, especially punishment o operated based on reality principles o demands of external world o loyal to ID:  it glosses over ID`s wrongdoings o reality principle:  uncontrolled expression of ID brings about punishment  ego wants to avoid it – out of fear  ego does not want ID to be punished  ego is immoral - SUPEREGO o conscience o mainly unconscious  right/wrong, good/bad o result of socialization  internalized social rules and expectations  watches ego’s moves  punishes it with feelings of anxiety and guilt  criticizes and prohibits  immoral, fantasies, feelings, and actions - personality: formation and interaction of these three elements Socialization in Psychoanalysis - resolution of Oedipal conflict (for boys) - a part of psychosexual development - development of libido (sexual appetite) - inhibiting sexual appetite during any stage would result in anxiety and persist into adulthood as a neurosis 5 Developmental Stages - source of pleasure is in a different erogenous zone of the infant’s body 1. Oral o birth until age 2 o mouth sources of gratification o pleasure of feeding art the mother’s breast o oral exploration of environment (tendency to place objects in mouth) o ID: dominates o there is no ego, superego o action based on please principle o weaning: key experience  first feeling of loss  increasing infant’s self-awareness • lack of control over environment • learns delayed gratification • leads to: o independence – awareness of the limits of the self) o trust – behaviours leading to gratification o thwarting oral stages results in:  if too much or too little gratification: • adulthood problems • fixation:
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