SOC307H5 Lecture Notes - Sigmund Freud, Neurosis, Psychological Repression

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Published on 31 Jul 2012
School
UTM
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC307H5
Professor
Page:
of 7
SOC307
July 11th
Psychological Explanations of Crime
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
-psychoanalysis: depth psychology
-basic assumption: most important factors influencing one’s personality and life are
deep in the unconscious
ounconscious support – personality
-Freud’s practise began by:
owas a neurologist first
owas looking for a treatment for hysteria – a form of neurosis (neurotic disorder)
omental disorders involving distress
odefinite symptom: anxieties
odepression, chronic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, phobias,
personality disorders
Hysteria
-unmanageable fear or emotional excesses
-
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
-French neurologist
-Treated patients who were suffering from a variety of unexplained physical symptoms
oParalysis, seizures, contractures
o
Picture: Hysterical Seizure
-concluded patients were suffering from a form of hysteria
-had been caused by their emotional response
-to a traumatic accident
-in their past
ofall from a scaffold, a railway crash…
Diagnosis
-patients suffered not from the physical effects of the accident
-but from the idea they had formed of it
Freud borrowed from Charcot
-main forms of neurosis came about when:
oa traumatic experience led to process of unconscious symptom-formation
Picture: Anna O
-21 years old who had fallen ill while nursing her father
-her illness began with a severe cough
-subsequently developed a number of other physical symptoms
oparalysis, hallucinations…
Breuer’s Diagnosis
-a case of hysteria
-cure:
orecreate the memory of the incident which had originally led to it
obring about emotional release
oby inducing the patient to express any feeling associated with the event
Birth of Psychoanalysis
-Freud connected:
oBreuer’s “ talking cure” with Charcot’s views of traumatic experiences
First Theory: Seduction Theory
-patients remembered incidents of childhood sexual abuse
orepressed those memories
-explained some, but not all cases of hysteria
Second Theory
-Freud learned:
oMajority complained of sexual problems
-he argued:
oproblems resulted from cultural restrictions on sexual expressions
orepression of sexual wishes and fantasies
ocultural taboos on sexuality
ounexpressed sexual desires
oexpressed as hysteria
-if you want to know people’s darkest desires, look at their dreams
-he realized:
opatients’ memories were constructed exaggerations
oa deeper reality was hidden behind these
oif expressed itself, but did not want to be known
odisguising itself
oFreud tried to find its structure
Structure of the Psyche/Mind
-ID
ounconscious
olocation of instincts: desires, aggressive, impulses, needs (food, sex)
owhat we are born with – inherited
ocontrol thoughts of feelings of individuals
othe operating system – imperative since birth
oruled by pleasure/pain principle
maximize pleasure and minimize pain
owithout a sense of time
ocompletely irrational
oprimarily sexual, infantile
owill not take “no” for an answer
oimmediate gratification
oit is also a repository (vault) for:
memories and thoughts that are repressed
person is averse to knowing
socially unacceptable
ideas, wishes and desires, traumatic memories, and painful
emotions
oexpress themselves in:
hysteria, neurosis
oamoral and selfish
moral: follows sense of right/wrong, good/bad
immoral: ignores good/bad
amoral: morality does not apply
ex. child, monkey, dog…
-EGO
oa part of ID
emerged out of the ID
omodified by influence of external world
orealistic part of the psyche
oreason, rationality, common sense
oneeded to control the ID
oFreud wrote of ego:
“In its relation to the ID, it is like a man on horseback, who has to hold
in check the superior strength of its horse”
omediates between:
id, superego (external world)
obalance between:
ID’s passions
demands of society
demands of morality
omain concern: safe satisfaction of ID`s desires
oconcerned with consequences of actions, especially punishment
ooperated based on reality principles
odemands of external world
oloyal to ID:
it glosses over ID`s wrongdoings
oreality principle:
uncontrolled expression of ID brings about punishment
ego wants to avoid it – out of fear
ego does not want ID to be punished
ego is immoral
-SUPEREGO
oconscience
omainly unconscious
right/wrong, good/bad
oresult of socialization
internalized social rules and expectations
watches ego’s moves
punishes it with feelings of anxiety and guilt
criticizes and prohibits
immoral, fantasies, feelings, and actions
-personality: formation and interaction of these three elements
Socialization in Psychoanalysis
-resolution of Oedipal conflict (for boys)
-a part of psychosexual development
-development of libido (sexual appetite)
-inhibiting sexual appetite during any stage would result in anxiety and persist into
adulthood as a neurosis
5 Developmental Stages
-source of pleasure is in a different erogenous zone of the infant’s body

Document Summary

Sigmund freud (1856-1939) psychoanalysis: depth psychology basic assumption: most important factors influencing one"s personality and life are deep in the unconscious. Treated patients who were suffering from a variety of unexplained physical symptoms. Paralysis, seizures, contractures o o o o o. Picture: hysterical seizure concluded patients were suffering from a form of hysteria had been caused by their emotional response to a traumatic accident in their past fall from a scaffold, a railway crash . Diagnosis patients suffered not from the physical effects of the accident but from the idea they had formed of it. Main forms of neurosis came about when: a traumatic experience led to process of unconscious symptom-formation. 21 years old who had fallen ill while nursing her father her illness began with a severe cough subsequently developed a number of other physical symptoms paralysis, hallucinations .