Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Anthropology (1,000)
ANTA01H3 (400)


Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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November 16th, 2010 Æ Introduction to Anthropology: Homo sapiens
Assignment # 2: due the last week of class, handed into the T.A, 1500 words MAX, use 3-5 primary
sources, pick a single fossil specimen (instead of a general topic like: Homo sapiens etc.) Æidea: become
familiar with a specific specimen, pay attention to the debates made on the specimen, the textbook
does not count as a primary document, use at least 1 journal article
Final Exam: not cumulative, chapter 10-13 and pay attention to chapter 9 Æ Homo erectus forward
Æcovers all 3 classes
x Anatomically modern Homo sapiens
x Out of Africa II vs. Multiregionalism
x Upper Palaeolithic Revolution vs. Gradualism
x Colonizing the world
Anatomically Modern Humans
x Fossils appear ~ 200,000 years ago
x Eastern and southern Africa
x Genetics also suggests 200,000 years ago
x Anatomically modern homo sapiens : bit of a relic term when we used to call Neanderthals
Homo sapiens , biologically we have been the species we are today for 200,000 years
AMHS early Fossils
x Omo I , East Africa 195kya = chin and forehead
x Herto ,East Africa 165kya = sometimes referred to as Idaltu ( ancestor)
x Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, 125kya = from the bits we have a forehead, and it has a jaw
Population Movements
x AMHS are in southwest Asia by 100kya
x Eventually reaching Europe and Australia by 50kya and North America?? Æ came to north
x Either through Out of Africa II (Recent African Origin) model or Multiregional hypothesis Æ
primary explanations for how Homo Sapiens migratedÆhomo erectus evolved into
Neanderthals, java man , etc and eventually though gene flow the species were able to
interbreedÆ multiple
Distribution of AMHS by 60kya
x E}]][ZuZÀ]}µo]e shown last week*
x Debate as to how they developed in these regions, or did we develop in Africa and come out
and replaced the Homo Sapiens
Gene Flow
x Multiregional evolution theory
x H. Sapiens developed independently in local regions from H.erectus, maintained species through
gene flow

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x Out of Africa II , H. Sapiens evolved in Africa, they moved out and replaced all other species
Genetic Studies
x vvoXíõôóU^À_
x Genetic studied on modern populations
x mt.DNA high mutation rate, follows female lineages
x variation was highest in Africa
x rate of mutation at 2- 4% per million years
x sub-saharan Africa has the most genetic diversity and is the source of Eve
x Homo Sapiens originated 200kya
Krings et al. 1999
x Mt. DNA of the type specimen of H. Neanderthalensis
x Comparison with modern human DNA
x Outside the range of variation
x Mutation rates place divergence of the species at 690-550kya
x Therefore no interbreeding
x ]v[ZPv]Á]ZEvZo]v,}u}µ
x SUPPORTS THE OUT OF AFRICA II MODEL * only one source for Homo Sapiens NO GENE FLOW
Paabo et al 2010-11-16
x Decoded the Neanderthal genome
x Samples from Germany, Spain, Croatia, and Russia
x Populations outside of Africa share 1-4% DNA with Neanderthals
x Probably interbred between 100-50kya in the middle east before AMH migrated east
...other side
x Researchers like Turner and Walpoff look at skull morphology and claim Asian and Australian H.
Sapiens fossils are more similar to local H. Erectus fossils than African AMHS fossils
x Are they using enough evidence? Or are they selecting specific specimens for their similarity?
x }v}Ç[À]vWKµ}((]v//Á}]Zµu}o
Technology by 100kya
x Same tools being used as Neanderthals
x Unable to tell the difference between 200kya
x Similar in form, point edge, round bottom
x No change in behaviour
Upper Palaeolithic Revolution?
x By 50kya great explosions of artefact types and evidence for abstract thought that expresses
cultural creativity
x Modern human behaviour...either though through : Upper Palaeolithic Revolution or
Gradualism Æ most evidence points that it is found in Europe (eastern and western)
x Still in the Pleistocene , Europe = still an ice age
Great Leap Forward
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