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Lecture 2

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Patella, Plantigrade


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Lecture
2

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ANTA01 Tutorial Assignment 2: Human Skeleton Lab
This lab is intended to introduce you to human skeletal anatomy, and to give
you a chance to observe some of the derived features of our skeleton in the
round.
Refer to the images included and to the articulated and disarticulated skeleton
models available in class.
Some of the structures you are asked to identify here are whole bones
(elements) and some are parts of bones (features). There are 206 bones in the
human skeleton, but you are NOT expected to know them all – just those on
this list! For testing purposes, you need to be able to identify them on a
diagram. You will not be given individual bones to identify in a quiz or exam.
SKELETAL STRUCTURES TO IDENTIFY
SKULL UPPER LIMBS LOWER LIMBS
Cranium
Mandible
Orbit (feature)
Incisor
Canine
Premolar
Molar
Scapula
Glenoid fossa (feature)
Clavicle
Humerus
Humeral head (feature)
Ulna
Radius
Radial head (feature)
Carpals, metacarpals, and
phalanges (know them
collectively)
First digit (thumb):
metacarpal and
phalanges.
Os coxa
Ilium (feature)
Iliac crest (feature)
Acetabulum (feature)
Pubis (feature)
Ischium (feature)
Femur
Femur head (feature)
Femur condyles (feature)
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals, metacarpals,
phalanges (collectively)
First digit (big toe)
VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Cervical vertebra
Thoracic vertebra
Lumbar vertebra
Sacrum
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EXERCISE QUESTIONS
CRANIUM
1) How many incisors, canines, premolars, and molars would an adult
human normally have?
2) Based on their shapes, what actions are the premolars, molars, and
incisors adapted for?
3) Compare the orbits of human skull with those of the other primates and
non-primates. What are some of the differences you observe?
UPPER LIMB
4) How many bones (excluding the carpal) are there for the thumb of one
hand? . How many are there of each type?
.
5) Name one bone the scapula articulates with: .
6) What part of the radius articulates with the humerus?
7) Name one bone the ulna articulates with: .
8) What is the action that involves the ulna and the radius rotating around
one another? .
9) Why does the base of the thumb (first hand digit, MC1 proximal end)
have a saddle-shaped joint rather than a hinge-shaped joint?
.
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LOWER LIMB
10) What part of the femur forms part of the knee joint?
.
11) What two bones (and which parts of those bones?) make up the hip
joint? .
12) Which major limb bone joint is adapted to have a wide range of
motion? Which is adapted to be extremely strong under load?
.
13) What characteristics tell you this?
.
14) Name one bone the pelvis articulates with:
.
15) What is the function of the longitudinal arch of the foot?
.
16) Compare the relative size of the human big toe to the first digit in a
nonhuman primate and in a non-primate. Why is the human toe so much
bigger?
.
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