Focus on chapter 2 of living language book. He wanted to understand the uses of language. The icon is the notion of how a photo can stand for something else. Symbol is an arbitrary way to talk about something example bird. We can say to someone we see smoke and they know it"s a fire. 2 important themes: language should not be studied in isolations or cultural meanings, questions about social cultures and social meanings. All research begins with a research question-often concerns how language shapes culture. Also a focus on the kinds of data we find. Some people may video record or tape record, everyday interactions. Also learning and understanding new languages, great way to become familiar with social roles and practices. Ex. job interview, the interviewer has power over whether you get the job. Interviewer and interview are counterparts in the interview. Surveys and questionnaires- not the most used method.