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2 kinds of Conditional learning: A) Classical; learning to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another Ivan Pavlov = Pavlovian theory Dogs salivate before food was eaten which is an unconditional response (automatic and unlearned) after using a bell before supper time they salivated at the sound of the bell alone which is a conditioned response (they learned that the bell meant dindin) Unconditioned stimulus [food] = unconditioned response [salivate] Conditioned stimulus [bell] = conditioned stimulus [salivate on command] B) Operant; behaviour and consequence [i.e.Rat pushes button, treat is released] Punishment Stop undesired behaviour unpleasantly. Negative Event, situation or condition that decreases the likelihood of reinforcement certain behaviour. Positive Event, situation or condition that increases the likelihood of reinforcement certain behaviour. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING ATTENTION Pay attention to behaviour of others Store mental representation of what you observe in your RETENTION memory REPRODUCTION Stored memory into action MOTIVATION Must believe the skill is useful to you PHOBIAS Acrophobia High places Hydrophobia Water Public Agoraphobia Open spaces Lalophobia speaking Algophobia Pain Phobophobia Fear of fear Astraphobia Thunder/lightening Xenophobia Strangers Claustrophobia Enclosed spaces Zoophobia Animals DEFENCE MECHANISMS Repression Burying experience in the unconscious Reacting in a less mature way in order to avoid dealing Regression with the problem Rationalization Blaming a problem on an unrelated source Denial Refusing to accept and unpleasant truth Thoughts, perceptions; holds what we’re aware of, can be Conscious (10%) verbalized and thought of in a logical way. Pre conscious Memories; things aren’t stored here but can be readily (10-15%) brought into the conscious part Fears, shameful experiences; Not directly accessible to awareness, dumping area for urges, feelings and ideas tied to Unconscious (75- anxiety, conflict and pain. Exert influence on our conscious 80%) awareness. Id Ego Superego Sexual & aggressive
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