Lecture Nine- Race and Racism
□ Race versus ethnicity
□ Essential concepts of race versus DNA distribution
□ Racial traits as arbitrary and subjective
□ The “Great Chain of Being”
□ Samuel Cartwright, drapetomania, and scientific racism
□ Franz Boas and craniometry
□ Race and racisms
□ “new racism”
□ Internalized racism
How do anthropologists think about race?
□ Race is a recent human invention
□ Race is about culture, not biology
□ Race and racism are embedded in institutions and everyday life.
□ -Roberts mentions its political not biological
□ -we talk abt racism as a way to describe an individual. We describe some as racist
□ -race is part of our everyday life
□ -even if some is not racist it doesn’t mean that they don’t think in terms of race
Discussion: What is race?
□ What is race?
□ How do we define it?
□ How do you determine a person’s race?
□ How does race shape your everyday life?
□ “Global Census” http://www.understandingrace.com/lived/global_census.html
□ What is race?
□ -cultural identity
□ -skin color □ -characterization
□ - geographic origin
Do races exist?
□ Races, as discrete biological categories, do not exist
□ However, race is a meaningful social category with very real social consequences
□ Working definition of race: the culturally constructed categorization of people into groups based on
□ -race doesn’t exists
□ -race may not exist biological it exists socially and politically
Race versus ethnicity
□ The two terms of often used interchangeably
□ Global census: http://www.understandingrace.com/lived/global_census.html
□ Also see “Portraits of Urban Identity”
□ Race—insists on “natural” or biological explanations
□ Ethnicity—based on a shared sense of identity, and a relationship to other groups
□ -race is the use of physical, natural way of classifying ppl into category
□ -race insists upon natural and biological aspects to categorize
□ -ethnicity is more about classifying ppl based on shared sense of identity
□ -u can be the same race but different ethnicity
□ -ethnicity is something u are taught based on where you grow up.
Races are not discrete biological categories
□ 94% of DNA differences occur within so-called racial groups
□ Conventional racial groupings differ from each other in only about 6% of their genes
□ There is more genetic difference within “races” than between them
□ -the human invention of race means that we categorize ppl into race based on their physical aspects and
then we give them social characteristics like this race is more violent than others, this race works more
than the other Physical traits don’t predict much else
□ Physical traits are inherited independently
□ Ie—the presence of dark skin does not always correlate with curly hair, much less with, say, intelligence
□ Divisions of biological populations by physical traits are arbitrary and subjective
Racial categories as subjective
□ “Mixed race” (black/white) would be:
□ Black in U.S. and Canada
□ Moreno (brunette) in Brazil