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Lecture 4

ANTB22 Lecture 4.rtf

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Joyce Parga

January31:Lecture4,ForagingandPredation ✓ Dietary Categories ⁃ frugivore: fruits ⁃ folivore : leaves ⁃ gumnivore : tree sap, gum ⁃ faunivore : animal prey (insects and vertebrates) ⁃ insectivore : insects ⁃ omnivore: varied diet , example: chimpanzee *category based on what animal MOSTLY eats, different sites they will eat different fruits based on what the sites have * ✓ Dietary Dependence on Body Size ⁃ see strier, pg. 153 ⁃ strong relationship between body size and diet ⁃ above x axis: shows body size across x axis ⁃ very small = eat mostly insects ⁃ big (gorilla) = eat mostly leaves ⁃ vast majority of primates eat fruits, middle size eat lots of fruits. ⁃ linear spectrum ✓ Primate Diets a& Body size ⁃ the smallest primates (<1kg) ten to be mostly insectivorous ⁃ the largest primates tend to be mostly folivorousbbbbb ⁃ many primates are mostly frugivorous.. ⁃ those that are small to medium side also eat insebbcts (squirrel monkey) ⁃ those that are medium to large side also eat leaves (spider monkey) ⁃ gumnivores tend to be small-bodied ⁃ "Kay's Threshold" - 500 grams ⁃ he realized that body size and primate diet and interesting shift that happens at 500g ⁃ found that insectivores tend to weigh less than this limit = they eat insects ⁃ no folivore is smaller than this weight = they aren't any folivores under 500g ✓ Primate Foods ⁃ fruit:bbnn ⁃ high in sugar (has lots of calories) ⁃ good for sugar but low in protein ⁃ primates get protein from leaves ⁃ must travel farther to find fruits (means longer daily path lengths) ⁃ fruits are patchily distributed ⁃ how do primates gt protein in their diet? ⁃ eating insects = difficult to catch and they're small! ⁃ eating leaves (and shoots and buds) = they're a low energy resource, so must eat a large amount so challenging for primates to meet protein requirements ⁃ ex. tarsier (small and eats insects) ⁃ issues with folivory ⁃ leaves are hard to digest ⁃ secondary compounds ( tannins, alkaloids) ⁃ so sometimes primates eat younger leaves bc low level of tannins ⁃ primates stomachs don't have the enzymes needed to break down cellulose ⁃ so they need gut micro-organisms that digest leaves for primates ✓ Gut adaptations ⁃ strier, pg 149 ⁃ first one : long small intestine (cerco ⁃ cebus) = frugivore adaptation ⁃ last three: macaca colobus, lepilemur = folivore adaptations ⁃ eat lots of fruits, you have long and increase surface area for absorption for digestion. long and small ⁃ folivore: need lots of chambers, complex stomach for extra space in stomach for micro-organism to digest and absorb nutrients . ⁃ enlarged large intestine: ⁃ large caecum: elongated caecum - adaptation if folivore, difficult to breakdown leaves ⁃ complex stomach is adaptation for what dietary adaptation ? = folivore adaptations ******* midterm questions ✓ Dental Adaptations ⁃ Frugivore Teeth: molar low, rounded cusps (cercocebus, steles) = ⁃ Folivore Teeth: molar sharp, shearing, crests (propithecus presbytis) = increase surface area and need to chew leaves so need sharp shearing crests teeth to cut it down ⁃ strier, 149 ✓ Dental adaptations ⁃ papio = broad incisors = frugivore teeth ⁃ alouatta = small incisors = folivore teeth ✓ 2 forms of competition ⁃ contest competition: when a resource can be monopolized (controlled) by a single individual or group and can be fought over ⁃ can have contest competition over a women too , women can be a resource too ⁃ high dominance status is a major benefit bc resource can be fought over ⁃ scramble competition when a resource is exploited by the individual that arrives and uses it first ⁃ example: grass is widespread available, so cannot be monopolized so whoever goes there and eats it first ⁃ dominance does NOT benefit an a
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