BIOA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: G2 Phase, Dna Polymerase Iii Holoenzyme, Helicase

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Note 5 and 6 bioa01 module 2. Protein targeting getting a protein to where it needs to be in a cell. First decision is influenced by where the protein was made. All nuclear-encoded proteins start on the free ribosomes in the cytoplasm: some proteins are completed on the free ribosomes in the cytoplasm, some proteins are completed on the ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. The decision to move proteins to the rough er is encoded in the mrna: they have a signal peptide which is few amino acids in a row near the amino-terminus of the growing peptide. Proteins without signal peptide complete translation on free ribosomes: proteins destined for the double membrane organelles: nucleus, chloroplast, or mitochondria, proteins of cytosol. E. g. , microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments: proteins of the peroxisome, once these proteins have finished translating, they dissociate from ribosome and move to the appropriate organelles. Have a few amino acids that serve as localization signals.

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