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BIOA01H3 (800)
Lecture

Lecture 01 - new change


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Olavenson

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BIOA01 - Lecture 01
What is biology?
Bio – means life & logy – stud of scientific study of life
It h as many implic a tion ou tside of scienc e it h as ap plic a tion o u tside scienc e
oE.g. repro d u ctio n biolo gy - family that co uld nt h ave child h ave o ther o p tio n s to co n c ei
such vivo fertilization
But h ave to also fa c e & look at ethic al iss ues surro u n ding these ap plic a tion
oE.g. Molecular biology GM foo d again h ave look at ethic al iss ues sinc e average
perso n d o esnt kn ow the co n seq u enc e s that come w/ these fo od s
Biology is closer to u n d erstan din g :
oHow a sin gle c ell d evelo p s into an organism this h as implic a tion on d evelo p mental sta
of embryo to infant & prevent d evelo p mental disorders or pro blem
oHow plants co n v ert su nlight into chemic al energ y - plants & p h o toautotro pic organism
(alga e & cyanoba c teria) how d o they split the water mole c ule & emit energy as
result
Th u s by u n d erstan ding this we co uld split water our self & g et fos sil fuel Gre a t
energy so urc e
oHow h u man mind works Neuroscienc e p sych olo gy & biology come to g ether
oHow living organism intera c t interesting thing s such as h ow b a c teria in your
stoma c h that co n tribute to h u man survival & vic e v ersa & there is also o ther intera c tio
o u tside the body Ecology
oHow lifes diversity evolved from e a rly micro b es - we are curr ently loo sin g man y spe cie
even the o n es we d o nt kn ow ab o u t th u s, we are losin g v aluable info that co uld
solve many of the pro blems that we cur r ently h ave such as medic al, environ mental etc
pro blems
Furthermore, these organism that are b e c oming extinct intera c t w/ the e c olo gic al
system to ke e p it fun ctio nin g in a rig h t order by losin g these spe cies , the
whole system co uld p o tenti ally bre a k d own
What is Life?
Growth & repro d u ction
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Convert chemical molecule to one for m to another
Metabolism breathing, converting energy , producing waste
But biologist are still debating what is a real organism or what is life especially w/
robots & machinery this area is becoming complicated/ complex
oAlso issues w/ virus could only reproduce independently w/out a host
How is ALL life on earth Related?
Consists of organized cells multicellular vs. singular organism (some protist, bacteria,
archebacteria, some algae)
Contain heritable genetic information for reproduction (asexual such as cell division, binary
fission OR complicated/ elaborated such as sexual reproduction)
Show growth ( and development)
oUnicellular grow to certain size and that will trigger for asexual reproduction
oDevelopment most shows up in multi-cellular organism such as in internal organs
Responds to environmental stimuli - could make adjustment to sustain or enhance surivial s
adjusting pH, temperature or nutritional differences
Maintain homeostasis ( a condition in which the various parameters w/in organisms are
maintained at fairly stable / constant level)
oE.g. maintain body temperature at stable level (~37 C) if high or low means
illness
oAlso pH, saliently, nutritional at level that ensure organisms metabolism function optim
or not at all (e.g. w/ enzymes)
oProf research Uncliona ( Protist & algae) - this organism shows up in waste from mine
that generate acid (~pH level of 2.5 3) this organism is fully functional &
photosynthetic while its internal pH is ~7 (eukaryotic)
4 magnitude level difference in pH b/w internal membrane & outside but survive by
maintaining homeostasis
Use/covert energy & matter for biological function (=metabolism) - take matter (e.g. nutrie
from outside world & break down this matter into various forms of energy (ultimately to ene
currency ATP) that allows the organism to live , grow, and reproduce
Adapt to environmental change
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ow/ evolution through natural selection (if change time is relative to their lifespan)
obut if it change very quickly or much faster that generation time of a particular organis
they may not be able to adapt in time the reason why some species population
drop very low & may go extinct in time
Common Themes in Biology
Cell all organism starts out of cell ( cells are basic units of living organism)
Heritable information enclosed in DNA molecules & enable t he organism to pass info to the
next generation
Emergent Properties - are revealed at higher levels of hierarchical biological system
Regulation Feedback mechanism regulate biological system maintaining homeostasis
oThese system tell organism about the conditions of the outside & inside environment -
result could change inside environ ment to maintain homeostasis
Environment Interaction organisms are open systems exchanging energy & materials w/ th
environment
Energy Flow organisms perform work that requires energy that flow from sunlight to produ
to consumers
Diversity/ Unity - (this is important the me to this course) they are kind like opposite side of
a coin
oHave lot of diversity of life that shows diverse ways of survival BUT at the same time th
exists a unity b/w t hese organism/ species via organisation of diversity into taxonomic
hierarchy based on similarities
These similarities are what suggest that all life of earth came from a single com mon
ancestor around 3.8 billion years ago Evolution
Evolution - via natural selection is CORE THEME that explains both diversity & unity
Structure & Function - if know something from structure & could make educated guess to it
function & vice versa e.g. w/ Wing - deals w/ flight & see reduced wing in ostrich
dont im m ediately t hink flying but know flying was there at some point in their ancestors
oE.g. airplane design af ter birds (nature)
oStructure & functions are correlated at all levels of biological organizations
Scientific Inquiry - science is based on observation based discovery & hypothesis based inq
that is repeatable and falsifiable
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