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BIOB11H3 (235)
Dan Riggs (169)
Lecture

Genome Organization

2 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs

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Vocabulary
Absorption spectrum-
a plot of the intensity of light absorbed
relative to its wavelength
Denaturation-
the unfolding or disorganization of a protein from
its native or fully folded state
Hybridization-
In situ hybridization-
Centromere-
Telomere-
The Structure of DNA:
o
Has a double helix structure which is anti-parallel, has a 5' and 3'
end
o
Complementary base pairing occurs through hydrogen bonding: A-
T, G-C
o
Made of a phosphate backbone with a sugar called deoxyribose
o
Contains 2 types of nitrogenous bases: purines (G,A) and
pyrimidines (T,C)
o
Pyrimidines is made of a single ring, purines have 2 rings
o
Is a polynucleotide chain, and absorbs light in the ultraviolet range
o
A-T 2 hydrogen bonds and G-C three hydrogen bonds
o
The base composition changes from animal to animal thus cause
differences in genetic information
Absorbance of Light:
o
DNA absorbs light in the UV range and it is mainly absorbed by
the ring structures
o
Absorbance is measured by the spectrophotometer
o
Absorbance increases after DNA becomes denatured into a single
strand
This occurs due to the fact that the ring structures are now
more exposed to the light source than before, they are better angled
SS DNA can be more flexible and can rotate around the
glycosidic bond
Complexity:
o
It is a measure of the repetitive sequences that exist in a genome
o
To determine the number of these sequences hybridization
techniques are used
Hybridization is when two different DNA strands come
together to form a hybrid
o
Renaturation of denatured DNA can happen depending on
temperature, ionic strength, length of fragments and time
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Description
Vocabulary Absorption spectrum- a plot of the intensity of light absorbed relative to its wavelength Denaturation- the unfolding or disorganization of a protein from its native or fully folded state Hybridization- In situ hybridization- Centromere- Telomere- The Structure of DNA: o Has a double helix structure which is anti-parallel, has a 5 and 3 end o Complementary base pairing occurs through hydrogen bonding: A- T, G-C o Made of a phosphate backbone with a sugar called deoxyribose o Contains 2 types of nitrogenous bases: purines (G,A) and pyrimidines (T,C) o Pyrimidines is made of a single ring, purines have 2 rings o Is a polynucleotide chain, and absorbs light in the ultraviolet range o A-T 2 hydrogen bonds and G-C three hydrogen bonds o The base composition changes from animal to animal thus cause
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