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Dan Riggs (169)
Lecture

Genome Evolution

3 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs

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Vocabulary
Transposition-movement of DNA segments from one place on a
chromosome to an entirely different site
Transposon- DNA segments capable of moving from one place in
the genome to another
Retrotransposon- transposable elements that require reverse
transcriptase for their movements within the genome
Reverse transcriptase- An RNA dependent DNA polymerase, an
enzyme that uses RNA as a guide to synthesize a complementary DNA
strand
Centimorgan- a map unit of recombination
Genetic maps- assignment of genetic markers to relative positions
on a chromosome based on crossover frequency
Physical maps-
Polymorphism- sites on the genome that vary amongst individuals
RFLP- a base change that result in the abolition or cretion of a
recognition sequence for a restriction enzyme
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)- sites in the genome
where alternate bases are found with high frequency in the population
DNA sequence variation:
oMost common genetic variability in humans occur at SNPs
oSNPs thought to have arisen from a mutation that happened once
in during the course of human evolution
oOf the common SNPs found in humans about 60000 are found
within protein coding sequences and this lead to amino acid replacements
within the encoded protein
This genetic variation is responsible for the phenotypic
variability amongst humans
oEx: of genomic polymorphism- deletion, inversion, insertion and
gene duplication
Barbara McClintock's Discovery of Transposons:
oObserved the C gene in corn and noticed the changes in colour
oC gene normally resulted in purple kernels whereas when a
transposon was inserted into the gene, the kernels became colourless
oIf the transposon left the gene early- a large purple sector
oIf gene left later- a small purple sector
Transposition Process:
oTransposon recognizes a particular gene and adds itself right after
that segment
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Description
Vocabulary Transposition-movement of DNA segments from one place on a chromosome to an entirely different site Transposon- DNA segments capable of moving from one place in the genome to another Retrotransposon- transposable elements that require reverse transcriptase for their movements within the genome Reverse transcriptase- An RNA dependent DNA polymerase, an enzyme that uses RNA as a guide to synthesize a complementary DNA strand Centimorgan- a map unit of recombination Genetic maps- assignment of genetic markers to relative positions on a chromosome based on crossover frequency Physical maps- Polymorphism- sites on the genome that vary amongst individuals RFLP- a base change that result in the abolition or cretion of a recognition sequence for a restriction enzyme SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)- sites in the genome where alternate bases are found with high frequency in the population DNA sequence variation: o M
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