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Lecture

basic tenets of DNA


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC61H3
Professor
Clare Hasenkampf

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QUESTIONS ARE HIGHLIGHTED IN GREEN COLOR. THOSE DIRECTED TO INSTRUCTOR ARE RED OR ANY OTHER
COLOR.
DNA must
Stable
Replicate-able and transmittable
Changeable – mutate-able
Direct cellular /organizational
Deoxyribose lacks hydroxide on carbon # 2
Single stranded DNA is strong because it is strengthened by
covalent bonds (phosphodiester bond /linkage)
Guanine –double ringed
Optimizing hydrogen bonding and bond distance g ---c (3H), a---
t (2H) REFERRED TO AS NUCLEIC ACID COMPLEMENTARITY,
defining the hallmark of DNA
Even though DNA is a 3 dimensional molecule its information is
in discrete form thus digital.
Q. Why are chromosomes considered organelles?
Based on complementarities, replication of DNA could be
explained through semi-conservative replication
DNA sequence is a code for amino acids using a triplet code
This leads us to the Central Dogma – DNA serves a template to
make RNA, which is the actual code for protein synthesis. A
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nucleotide of RNA can base pair with a nucleotide of DNA if they
follow complementarities
The sequence of bases in RNA codes for amino acids
RNA does not exist as a double strand because only one strand of
DNA is used; this makes RNA less stable than DNA. This is good
because we do not want it to be present forever only the required
RNA necessary for protein synthesis
We have approximately 6m of DNA. It runs in a 5’ TO 3’ direction
R GROUP of amino acid give each amino acid its unique properties
Simple organisms have less DNA but as they become more complex
this correlation is lost due to the increase in intergenic space DNA
(larger introns) – complex organism cut these out through mRNA
splicing.
Gregor Mendel –father of inheritance, applied genetics through
animal husbandry had been used long before. Mendel discovered
the rules that governed the process.
Units of inheritance do not blend, protein products may blend but
the genes do not. Mendel used easy to use organisms: a model
organism
This is because it is easy to manipulate, easy to work with and keep
alive usually one with a short life .He used the peas plant, which
undergoes self-fertilization.
Drosophilla Melanongaster is also another model organism.
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