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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Functional groups  - Are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions  - The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule it’s unique properties  - Function groups give a carbonated chain certain properties, all compounds that have the same functional groups, share similar properties. Macromolecules Polymer – a long molecule consisting of mainly similar building blocks Monomers are small building block molecules All living things are made up four classes: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids all of them are polymers but lipids. Dehydration – when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule (h2o) Hydrolysis – when water is used to break up two monomers Carbohydrates  - includes sugars and polymers of sugars  - the simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides/single sugars  - macromolecules are polysaccharides polymers composed of many sugar building blocks Disaccharides are formed when a dehydration reaction occurs and joins two monosaccharides This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage  - – - – - – - – - - Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that do not form polymers unifying feature of all lipids is that has little or no affinity for water consists of fats, phospholipids and steroids Hydrophobic – because they are mostly made up of non-polar covalent bonds Fats- made up of two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol : 3 carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon Fatty Acid- consist of a carboxyl group attached to a carbon skeleton Fatty Acids vary in length/number of carbons/locations of double and triple bonds Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible, has no double bonds Example. Margarine, butter, lard Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds throughout the carbon skeleton example. Oils Phospholipids - Are two fatty acids, a phosphat
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