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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Humus: decomposing organic matter to -bind mineral particles -retain water -breaks down other nutrients -spaces in soil allows for air and water, and space for animals -Living organisms can be decomposed Photosynthesis : Carbon Dioxide + Water -> (light energy) glucose + oxygen -Glucose contains CO2, reflects the environment’s concentration of CO2 -Trees that die off will release the carbon dioxide they’ve absorbed back into the atmosphere Succession Primary Succession: begins with a new environment with just a few rocks -Takes longer -Rocks > mosses > ferns > pines > beeches & maples -Deciduous trees Secondary Succession: when succession begins with an existing community of trees -Shorter time -Living Trees > Stumps > weed > aspen, beeches > returns to climax -Soil created from glaciers when a large block of ice drags along dirt and soil up to another region, allowing it to sustain life when temperature permits Climax: consisting of ideal soil, water, and temperature conditions that support the growth of certain vegetation -Named after their main vegetation in that area Tundra: long winters, short summers, low precipitation Boreal Forest: long winters, short warm summers, and more precipitation Deciduous Forest: mild winters, hotter summers, precipitation average -Deforestation: Habitat Loss, altering water cycle, erosion, CO2 levels, climate change Plant Technologies: Artificial Selection: to pick out only certain number of traits to remove or maintain a favoured trait -Better market, storage, genes, and traits Mass Selection: take the seeds with the best performance and grow them the next season Pure Line Selection: mate certain types of plants to make desired traits reproduce (think Mendel) Crossbreeding: combine 2+ desired traits to create a plant with traces from each trait Hybrids: combining 2 parents to have 4 dif
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