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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Bio Notes Glycolysis: the breaking down of glucose  Can occur with or without oxygen  xvdWithout oxygen, it goes into fermentation  With oxygen it goes into the Kreb’s Cycle then the electron transport chain  Most of the ATP is produced in the electron transport chain  2 ATPs are used to start off glycolysis  The glucose is broken into two 3 carbon molecules with a phosphate attached to it (PGAL’ phosphloglyceraldehyde)  It goes through a “payoff phase) and create 2 pyruvate molecules; two ATPs and one NADH per pyruvate +  Glucose + 2NAD + 2ATP + 4ADP + 4 phosphate groups  2 Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ADP + 4ATPS  Net gain: 2 ATPs, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvates Kreb’s Cycle  Glycolysis results in the production of 2 pyruvates, 2ATPs, and 2NADHs  Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm  Kreb’s cycle takes place in the inner space of the mitochondria  Pyruvate gets oxidized into a 2 carbon molecule called Acetyl CoA; NAD is reduced to NADH  Acetyl CoA is catalyzed by oxaloacetic acid (a 4 carbon molecule) by enzymes, and creates a 6 carbon molecule called citric acid  6 NADH, 2ATP and 2FADH are2created in the Kreb’s cycle  With both glycolysis and Kreb’s cycles, 4ATPs, 10NADHs, and 2FADH are2created  In the electron transport chain, 3ATPs are created per NADH, totalling in 30ATPs  2ATPs are produced per FADH molecule 2 Electron Transport Chain  Oxidation of NADH: NADH  NAD + H + 2e + -  Reduction of oxygen into water: 2e + H + ½ O  2 O 2  Kreb’s cycle occurs in the matrix  Oxidation and reduction reactions are happening in protein complexes in the membrane of the matrix
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