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BIOA02- Chapter_52.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Mary Olaveson

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Biology Chapter 52 NotesEcology the scientific study of the rich and various interactions between organisms and their environmentCommunities Systems embracing all organisms living in a certain areaEcosphere System embracing all organisms living in a certain area plus their physical environmentsBiosphere System embracing all regions of the planet where organisms live Abiotic physicalchemical factors Environment Bioticliving organismsClimate The average atmospheric condition wind temperature precipitation found in all regions over a period of timeWeather is the short term conditions climate is what you expect whereas weather is what you getThe temperature of a region depends on the amount of solar energy it receives based on the angle of sunlightOn average temperature decreases 04 for every degree of latitude 1110kmAlso temperature decreases with elevation When air parcels rise it expands loses pressure and temperature and releases moisture When it descends it compresses gains pressure and temperature and takes up moistureThis produces intertropical convergence zones air parcels rise in tropical areas due to more concentrated solar energy which causes expansion and the inability to hold moisture therefore a lot of rain This air that rises is replaced by air that flows to the equator from the north and south ie convection cellsThe intertropical convergence zone shifts lattitdinally with seasons based on earths rotation around the sun which causes rainy and dry seasons to be predictedMany deserts are located where the air that once rose from the equator and lost its moisture descends to replace the new air that rises at the equatorAt about 60 north and south of the equator air rises again and either moves towards or away from the equatorBecause the Earths rotation is faster at the equator than at the poles the winds that go towards the equator end up being slower than the earth beneath it and turn into the northeastsoutheast trade winds jet stream Air masses moving towards the poles become westerly winds
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