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2013BIOAO2 Lecture 02.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. Freom tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 2 notes (1-2. Tree of life- plants) Lecture 1-2 outline: A) Basal tree of life B) Bryophytes- Liverwort, mosses, hornworts C) Lycophytes D) Ferns E) Gymnosperm F) Angiosperm C) Lycophytes-vascular plants First lycophyte: Phanerozoic, Paleozoic era time. They were primative and branched. How they conquered of dry land by vascular plants:  Cuticle  Stomata  Vascular tissue  Sporanges Rhymia and Zosterophyllum are examples of Lycophytes 420 million years old! Cell strurcture: from top to bottom  Cuticle, upper epidermis, pallisade layer, spongy mesophyll, lower epidermis, cuticle Lycophytes example: Clubmosses (400 species), Quillworts (150 species), Spikemosses (700 species). Althought they have the word mosses, they are vascular plants. mosses in general are nonvascular plants. Clubmosses, Quillworts, Spikemosses are special kinds of mosses because they are vascular plants. Vascular plants are plants that have phloem and xylem which are efficient methods to uptake nutrients and water. D) Ferns Exist during the carboniferous~Jurrasic (Paleozoic~Phanerozoic years) Whisk ferns(2 species) and allies Horsetails (15 species), true ferns (12,000 species). Today true ferns take up 75% of speciesin tropics, Tiny aquatic AZOLLA ferns are the WORLD’S SMALLEST FERNS. Through burial pressure, heat time: how peat turns into anthracite coal: peat>lignite>sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, anthracite coal. Life cycle of ferns  Let’s begin with germinating spore  mature sporangium germinatingspore (2n) has spores(n) (n) Cluster of sori Prothallium, (groups of gametophyte (n) sporangium) • egg (n),sperm (n) Mature leaf sporophyte (2n), Efertilizes into sporophyte (2n) Embryo (2n) Developing frond sporophyte (2n), Gametophyte (n), sporophyte (2n) Developing root sporophyte (2n
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