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2013BIOAO2 Lecture 03.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ivana Stehlik

2013BIOAO2 S Module 1 January 7 ~Feb1 2013 Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013. 5-7pm Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 . th Total: 12 lectures Lecture outline: 1-2: Tree of life-plants 3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues 5-6. From seed to tree 7-8. Freom tree to seed 9. Transport in plants 10. Plant nutrition and soils 11. Plant defense 12. Plant life on the edge. Lecture 3 notes (Plant cells and plant tissues) A) Undifferentiated cells: meristems Plants have indeterminate growth because plants need meristem.  Limiting factors: soil nutrieds, bug, weather Humans have determinate growth because they have stem cells.  Limiting factors: number of cells. By dividing, meristematic cells give rise to more meristematic cells and specialized & differntiated cells.  Primary meristematic cells: shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem (RAM)  Secondary meristem: many different ones, different locations. o Axillary meristem, Lateral meristem, Adventitous meristem, Vascular cambium, cork cambium. Shoot apical mersitem  Leaf primordia protects shoot apical meristem.  From inside to outside: apical meristem>young leaves (leaf primordia)>rudimentary leaf>latueral, auxillary bud. Root apical meristem  3 sections from top to bottom: zone of cell differentiation>zone of cell elongation> zone of cell division.  Apical meristem and root cap B) Differentiated cells Simple tissue: tissue made of one cell type Complex tissue: tissue made of more than one cell type i) Simple plant tissues a) Parenchyma cells- most common cell types. Alive. Thin-walled, least specialized, often block-shaped main functions: space filler in vascular bundles , photosynthesis (cholorenchyma – parenchyma with chloroplast) , storage of water and nutrients in roots, leaves, seeds, fruits (protein and starch). b) Collenchyma: alive, elongated, thickened in cell corners. Main functions: flexible storage in young stems, roots, petioles or around vascular bundles. Typically located nearby vascular bundles. c) Sclerenchyma- dead at maturity, cell interior almost completely filled. Main functions: structural length. Expeinsive to produce. Two types: sclereids-often short cell,branched, in single or aggregated (e.g. hard seed coats, shells of nuts, pear flesh) & fibers-flax plants (
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