January 7 ~Feb1 2013 th
Midterm date: Monday Febuary 4 2013th5-7pm
Module 2: Begins on Tuesday Feb 5 .
Total: 12 lectures
1-2: Tree of life-plants
3-4 Plant cells and plant tissues
5-6. From seed to tree
7-8. Freom tree to seed
9. Transport in plants
10. Plant nutrition and soils
11. Plant defense
12. Plant life on the edge.
Lecture 6 notes (From seed to tree)
B) From primary to secondary plant body
ii. Shoot and root primary growth.
Primary meristem: Shoot apical meristem & Root apical meristem
• Shoot apical meristem tissue from xylem (inside) to epidermis (outside): xylem> vascular
cambium> phloem>collenchyma>cortex (made up of parenchyma)>epidermis
o E.g sunflower (Helianthus)
o From pith(inside) to epidermis: pith>primary xylem>vascular cambium>primary
phloem>collenchyma>cortex(parenchyma with some collenchyma)>ground
o X-section of shoot is circle and vascular bundles around.
• Root apical meristem tissue
o During mitotic cell division: procambium>ground meristem>root apical meristem>root
o During differentiation: primary xylem>vascular cambium(replace procambium)>primary
phloem>endoderm>periccle>cortex>epidermis with root hair
Main difference between root and shoot: Root has no pith and the vascular
cambium is at the centre. Root has endoderm and pericycle.
Endoderm acts as a filter for material from root hair to vascular tissue.
o X-section of root is circle a star shaped.
• Limited maximum size with primary growth: collenchyma has ligment that strengthen plant for
• Primary to secondary growth: the girth(middle) of root/stem is inc