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Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

LECTURE 1 Figures: 1.1, 1.8, 1.10, 1.17,EP1  Early History – Microscopy figure 1.1 o Robert Hooke (1665)  “cell” – examining cork o Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1665-1675)  “animicules” – looking at bond water organisms o Matthias Schleiden, botanist (1838)/ Theodor Schwann, zoologist (1839), Rudolf Virchow (1855)  Cell Theory:  All organisms are composed of one or more cells  The cell is the structural unit of life for all organisms  Cells can arise only by division from pre-existing cell  Basic Properties of Cells figure 1.8 o Cells are highly complex and organized o Cells possess genetic program and the means to use it  DNA Protein  Transcription and translation machinery  genes to proteins o Cells are capable of producing more of themselves – mitosis and meiosis o Cells acquire and utilize energy to develop and maintain complexity  Photosynthesis and respiration  Sun Carbohydrates  ATP o Cells carry out many chemical reactions  Enzymes (proteins)  use ATP o Cells engage in numerous mechanical activities  Intra cellular transport  Whole cells can move Cell Migration o Cells able to respond to stimuli  Via surface receptors (proteins) o Cells are capable of self-regulation  Eg. DNA repair enzymes  E.g. immune cells o Cells evolve  Beneficial genetic mutations/cellular changes will be kept /retained in future generations  Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes EP figure 1 o Prokaryotes (pro before; Karyonnucleus)  All bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)  Structurally simpler  On earth for 3 billion years  Over 1 billion years before Eukaryotes o Eukaryotes (eutrue)  Protists, fungi, plants, animal  Structurally more complex  Eaukaryotic cells are believed to be descended from prokaryotic cells  Believed to have risen from endosymbionts  combination of two cells living in a symbiotic relationship
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