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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

biob10 200911atoms molecules and macromoleculesinside the nucleus there are protons positively charged and neutrons neutral circling them are electrons which are negatively charged when something is has no charge the number of protons equal the number of electrons it is neutral and has no chargeThe nature of biological moleculesAtoms form moleculesCovalent Bonds when electron pairs are shared between atoms to make molecules they are very strong bondsatoms are most stable when the outer shell is fullH2O oxygen has 6 electrons on the outer layer so shares an electron with 2 hydrogenCovalent bonds lead to1polar molecule unequal sharing of electrons if one of the nucleus is more positively charged then it will attract electrons a little bit more atom becomes more electronegative and this leads to an asymmetric distribution electronegative tendency for something to attract electrons H2OONSP2nonpolar molecule equal sharing of electrons atoms are of similar size so they share the electrons equally ex molecule that consists of CH they are not soluble in water because they are not polar hydrocarbons3ionized molecule when an atom is so electronegative that it can capture electrons from another ataom gains becomes anion and loses becomes cationNoncovalent bonds govern interaction between molecules or different parts of a larger biological molecule typically weaker4Ionic bond atoms or molecules with pos or neg charges that
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