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Chapter 11 Notes (Summer2011)

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Biological Sciences
Rosada Silva

BIOB11Summer2011 Chapter 11 Transcription and TranslationPart 1 Transcription Genes and Proteinso Genes are discrete units of inheritance o Genes physically reside on chromosomesthey are pieces of DNA molecule and they reside at a particular place in the chromosomes constant from one species member to the next Genes to Proteins o In 1908 Archibald Garrod linked an inherited condition alcaptonuria to lack an enzymediscovered the relationship between a genetic defect a specific enzyme and a specific conditioninborn errors of metabolism Inborn Errors of Metabolism o He knew excess phenylalanine was metabolized to produce maleylacetoacetate o Knew homogentisate could be found in affected patients urine o Therefore the enzyme at this step must be defective didnt turn the homogentisate into maleyloacetoacetate o Disease phenotype followed a Mandelian recessive inheritance patterngene must be responsible for the production of the defective enzyme Genes to Proteins Continued o In the 1940s Beadle and Tatum working on Neurospora studied 100 000 irradiated mutated sporeso Isolated dozens of mutants with enzyme deficiencies o Discovered that a gene carries information for the construction of a particular enzymeone gene one enzymelater altered to one gene one polypeptide chain o In 1956 Vernom Ingram digested haemoglobin from normal and sickle cells with trypsin a protease o One of the peptides was differentsubstitution of one amino acid mutation in a single gene caused by a single substitution in an amino acid sequence of a single protein Flow of Information o Messenger RNA is an intermediate between a gene and a polypeptide o Transcription is the process by which RNA is formed from a DNA template o Translation is the process by which proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm from an mRNA template RNAo Three classes of RNA mRNA tRNA and rRNA o rRNA recognizes other molecules provides structural support in the ribosome and catalyzes amino acid linkage o tRNA is required to translate information from mRNA to amino acids Transcription o the process by which RNA is formed from a DNA template o only one strand of DNA is used as a templatetemplate strand other strand is a non coding strand o begins with RNA polymerase which binds the template strand and begins to produce complementary RNA 1
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