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Chapter 24.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ted Petit

Chapter 24 Urinary System • Kidneys - Functions 1. main excretory organ 2. regulates blood volume and pressure 3. regulates chemical makeup of blood (water/solutes, acid/base) 4. RBC production (makes erythropoietin) - Retroperitoneal - Renal hilus is cleft on medial surface 1. other structures enter and leave here - Supporting tissue 1. renal capsule a. fibrous CT on surface adds protection 2. adipose tissue and renal fascia a. holds kidney in place, cushions, protects - Internal anatomy 1. cortex (outer layer) 2. medulla (made up of medullary pyramids) 3. renal columns (cortex extends between pyramids) 4. sinus (space made by the hilus) a. contains vessels b. contains renal pelvis which drains collecting ducts (pelvis is continuous with ureter and has major and minor calyces) - Blood and nerve supply 1. renal arteries deliver about 25% of cardiac output 2. renal veins 3. renal plexus - network of nerve fibers - Nephron 1. functional unit of kidney (about 1 million/kidney) 2. made up of renal corpuscle (including glomerulus) and renal tubule 3. glomerulus and parts of tubule a. glomerulus 1) knot of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule (together called renal corpuscle) 2) filters blood 3) fluid in tubule called filtrate b. proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) 1) begins cuboidal epithelium 2) lots of microvilli for reabsorption and secretion c. loop of Henle
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