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Biological Sciences
Daman Bawa

BIOC13 NotesLecture 7 The Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation systems 1 NADH 25 ATP1 FADH 15 ATP228 ATP per molecule of glucoseUnder aerobic conditions ETC converts reducing equivalents to ATP using Oxidative Phosphorylation Reducing Equivalent a reducing agent that is equivalent to one electron oH one protonone electronoAn electronoHydride Ion 2 NADH2H5 ADP5 P 5O 2 NAD5 ATP2 HO ATP from NADH reactioni22Mitochondria location of ETCSize and shape depends on cell type and metabolic state of cellWhite muscles have few mitochondria rapid contractionsRed muscles have large amount of mitochondria sustained contractionsMitochondria is not a static organelleOuter Mitochondria Membraneo3040 lipids and 6070 proteinsoFew enzymatic or transport proteinsoRich in porins to all free diffusion of ions and small moleculesoConcentrations of ions and metabolites in the intermembrane space is similar to that of the cytosolInner Mitochondrial Membrane o80 proteins and 20 lipids oHigh levels of cardiolipins critical in functioning of energy producing enzymesoContains enzyme complexes of ETC and Oxidative phosphorylation several transport systems that transfer metabolites intermediates between the cytosol and the matrixoPermeable only o O CO and HO222CristaeoFolds of IMMoRange in shape from simple tubular structure to more complicated structures that merge with rest of the IMMoMicro compartments that restrict diffusion of metabolites and ions between the intercistal and intermembrane spaces resulting in local control of concentrations and pHMatrix oGel like consistency due to high concentration of proteinsoHigh concentrations of metabolites cofactors and inorganic ions oMitochondrial genetic and protein synthesis machineryMitochondrial DNA ribosomes and other proteins necessary for transcription and translationoEnzymes involved in oxidative metabolismoEnzymes involved in other pathwaysUrea heme synthesisMetabolites can enterleave mitochondria by different meansLack of transport protein prevents NADH from entering NADHOnly electrons from the cytosolic NADH are transported into mitochondria in form of reducing equivalents using shuttle systems oMalateaspartate shuttleoGlycerophosphate shuttleADP is imported into matrix in exchange for export of ATP to cytosoloADPATP translocatorP from ATP hydrolysis is transported in to mitochondira throughioPhosphate carrier or phosphate translocaseMalateaspartate shuttle Getting NADH into MitochondriaOxaloacetate is reduced to malate by cytosolic malate dehydrogenase while oxidizing NADH cytosolMalate is transported into the mitochondriaMalate is reoxidized oxaloacetate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase NAD is reduced to NADHGlycerophosphate Shuttle NADH in cytosol oxidized to NAD by 3phosphoglycerol dehydrogenase as result of reactionoDHAP 3 phosphoglycerol Reducing equivalents from 3phosphoglycerol are transferred to flavoprotein dehydrogenase to form FADH2FADH supplies electrons directly to ETC2ADPATP TranslocatorAka Adenine Nucleotide Translocase ANTCan bind ATP or ADPConformation change upon nucleotide binding flips the nucleotide across the membraneNet charge export is 1 ATP4 ADP3Driven by positively charged intemembrane spacePhosphate TransporterNeed P from cytosol into matrix to make ATPiPH symport driven by the change in pHiHigh H in the intermembrane space drives movement of P into the matrix iProducing energy rich proton gradient ETC
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