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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 – Developmental Biology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ian Brown

Lecture 2Developmental BiologyInteractions of the nucleus and cytoplasmEukaryotic cells consist of 2 major cellular compartments nucleus and cytoplasmFunction of the Nucleus Function of the Cytoplasm Contains hereditary material Site of protein synthesisDNA and chromosomal There are many other proteins organelles that are Activities that occur in the housed in the cytoplasm nucleus include DNA replication such as the gene expression can be turned mitochondria and the on or off RNA synthesis and golgi apparatus RNA transcriptionCytoplasm is responsible Introns are spliced out and poly for giving the cell its A tailcap is added in the shape and it also makes nucleus this influences the halfand organizes proteinslife of the transcribed RNA Slide 1 Zygote fertilized egg undergoes division into 2 cells481616 cellstage is known as a morula and each cell is known as a blastocoelFurther division will give rise to the gastrula hollow center filled with liquid and is formed by the invagination by gastrulationforms an endoderm insideyellow and ectoderm outsideblueLecture 2Developmental BiologyInteractions of the nucleus and cytoplasm The nucleus determines which proteins will be made in the cytoplasmThe cytoplasm affects the nucleustranscription factors move into the nucleus and affects which genes are going to be expressed slide 4 Law 1 experimental proof earlier theories predicted that the genes of a cell will be distributed as the cells divide For example if a cell contained 4 genes A B C and D when the cell undergoes the first division it will give to rise to one cell with a combination of two genes and the another with the rest cell 2a has A and B and cell 2b has C and D HOWEVER THIS IS NOT THE CASE 3 experiments prove otherwise
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