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Chapter 12 Notes

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Jamie Donaldson

12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components Solvent: majority component (water) Solute: minority component Seawater is a thirsty solution bc of its tendency to MIX 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility Aqueous solution: water is the solvent and solid, liquid or gas is the solute Solubility of a substance is the amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent Natures Tendency toward Mixing: Entropy Formation of solution doesnt necessarily mean lower the potential energy of the particles Homogeneous mixture mixture of two ideal gases Neon and argon behave as ideal gases at low pressure and moderate temperature Two gases mix bc of entropy but not because of lowering potential energy (remains unchanged) Entropy: a measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system Ex. Neon and argon gas both has kinetic energy confined in a system with any temp. above 0K, when gases mix, Ek spreads outdispersed over a larger volume therefore mixture of gases has greater energy dispersalgreater entropy The pervasive tendency for energy to spread out, or disperse, whenever it is not restrained from doing so is the reason that two ideal gases mix. Thermal energy from hot to god is another tendency toward energy dispersal The Effect of Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces exists between: solvent-solute, solvent, and solute particles Solvent-solute > Solvent-solvent + Solution forms interaction solute-solute interaction Solvent-solute = Solvent-solvent + Solution forms interaction solute-solute interactions Solvent-solute < Solvent-solvent + Solution maymay interaction solute-solute not form, depending interaction on relative disparity Miscible: the ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all proportions Formation of solution is bc of tendency of mixinggreater entropy Disparity large solution will not form Ex. H2O has strong H-bonding attraction but cannot form hydrogen bond w hexane Energy to pull H2O molecules is too great and too little energy is retuned when the water molecule interacts with hexa netherefore solution is not formed like dissolves like 12.3 Energetic of Solution Formation Understand energy changes associated w solution formation by: 1. Separating solute into its constituent particles
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