CHMA11H3 Study Guide - Molality, Mole Fraction, Chloroform

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17 Feb 2011
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Chapter 12: Solutions
๎€solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components
๎€The majority component is typically called the solvent and the minority component
is called the solvent.
๎€Thirsty solutions are those that have the tendency toward mixing (ex: salt water)
๎€Aqueous solutions: water is the solvent, and a solid, liquid, or gas is the solute
๎€Solubility: the amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of
solvent
๎€Entropy: the measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system.
๎€The mixture of two gases has greater energy dispersal, or entropy, than the
separated components
๎€Intermolecular forces:
๎€Miscible: The ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all
proportions.
๎€โ€œLike dissolves likeโ€: polar solvents tend to dissolve many polar or ionic solutes
and non-polar solvents tend to dissolve many non-polar solutes.
๎€Enthalpy of solution (๎€ h) is the sum of the changes in enthalpy for each step in a
reaction
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๎€Heat of hydration (๎€ hydration): ๎€ hsolvent + ๎€h mix can be combined into a single
term
๎€If ๎€ hsolute < ๎€ h hydration, the process is exothermic
๎€If ๎€ hsolute > ๎€ h hydration, the process is endothermic
๎€If ๎€ hsolute = ๎€ h hydration, the process is neither, resulting in very minimal
temperature change
๎€Dynamic Equilibrium: The point at which the rate of the reverse reaction or
process equals the rate of the forward reaction or process
๎€Saturated solution: a solution in which the dissolved solute is in dynamic
equilibrium with the solid solute
๎€Unsaturated solution: a solution containing less than the equilibrium amount of
solute
๎€Supersaturated solution: a solution containing more than the equilibrium amount
of solute. Such solutions are unstable and the excess solute normally precipitates out
of the solution
๎€A common way to purify a solid is a technique called recrystillization: enough solid
is added to water to create a saturated solution at an elevated temperature. As is
cools, it becomes supersaturated and the excess solid precipitates out of solution and
forms crystals as it comes out.
๎€The solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increasing temperature
๎€Henryโ€™s Law: quantifying the solubility of gases with increasing pressure
๎€S gas is the solubility of the gas (usually in M), kh is a constant of proportionality
(called Henryโ€™s law constant), and Pgas is the partial pressure of the gas (usually in
atm)
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Document Summary

Chapter 12: solutions solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components. The majority component is typically called the solvent and the minority component is called the solvent. Thirsty solutions are those that have the tendency toward mixing (ex: salt water) aqueous solutions: water is the solvent, and a solid, liquid, or gas is the solute. solubility: the amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. entropy: the measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system. The mixture of two gases has greater energy dispersal, or entropy, than the separated components. miscible: the ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all proportions. Like dissolves like : polar solvents tend to dissolve many polar or ionic solutes and non-polar solvents tend to dissolve many non-polar solutes.

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