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Lecture 9

Lecture 9

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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Lecture 9
Alpine – Himalayan Orogeney: The building of the next supercontinent (Pangea II)
Orogeny – process in mountain building
Orogen – the rocks that are being formed (folded rocks, metamorphic rocks etc)
In about 200 million years time, involves a process of obduction
Atlantic will start to close
Plate map: red arrow = direction, length of arrow=velocity
Locus of next supercontinent = japan, south east asia
Fig 2.29 in textbook – india driven north pushing into asian continent creating Himalayan mountains
effects are also felt over large area (Pakistan, Afganistan tring to “escape)
oChina experiencing earthquakes bc of india pushing north
oPushing about 12million years ago
Alpes = Africa colliding with Europe
Common type of rock – high grade metamorphic rock – granite
Granite (high content of silica, acidic) than basalt
oRhyoulite
No volcanoes in obduction zone
Fold and thrust belt – cover sediment rocks
oWhats in these in terms of resources= oil and gas
Ophiolite – left over from ocean – green rocks from basalt (erupted in water, has pillows)
Obduction Processes as Indian Sub-Continent Collides with Asia
The process where continents collide (way we grow continents), no subduction (losing ground mass)
involved so no volcanoes, just earthquakes
Destruction of the Tethys Ocean
Alpine – Himalayan creation = Tethys ocean is disappearing
C” formation Southern continents (gonduwana) move up towards china = closing the Tethys ocean
oindia separated form Antarctica
DIAGRAM – top is a subduction (simmerian orogeny) – ocean crust being more dense, so it subducts
under land
oBottom is obduction when india collides with tectonic plate
Now theres a shortening of the crusts, no more subduction
Foreland basin – infront of mountain
oWhen there are high mountains = huge load on the softer rocks (asthenosphere – “weak sphere)
oDepresses india
oVery valuable – fertile soil, plants and when plants decay = oil and gas
Western interior sedimentary basin (in canada, Calgary = tar sands)
Mount everest
oHas many sedimentary rocks, limestone with fossils - 9KM up above sea-level
Graph – average of global temperature = cooling of earth over time
oPaleopcene-Ecocene Thermal Maxiumum = huge amounts of methane gas which is a greenhouse
gas = warming
oOnset of North Atlantic deep water production – changed the way ocean circulate
oModern ocean 30 million years ago, when ice started to form at poles
What happens when you freeze sea water for the first time? BRINE – enriched more
saline of sea water
BRINE – north atlantic deep water sinks bc its dense, saline, travels to the equator
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Description
Lecture 9 Alpine Himalayan Orogeney: The building of the next supercontinent (Pangea II) Orogeny process in mountain building Orogen the rocks that are being formed (folded rocks, metamorphic rocks etc) In about 200 million years time, involves a process of obduction Atlantic will start to close Plate map: red arrow = direction, length of arrow=velocity Locus of next supercontinent = japan, south east asia Fig 2.29 in textbook india driven north pushing into asian continent creating Himalayan mountains effects are also felt over large area (Pakistan, Afganistan tring to escape) o China experiencing earthquakes bc of india pushing north o Pushing about 12million years ago Alpes = Africa colliding with Europe Common type of rock high grade metamorphic rock granite Granite (high content of silica, acidic) than basalt o Rhyoulite No volcanoes in obduction zone Fold and thrust belt cover sediment rocks o Whats in these in terms of resources= oil and gas Ophiolite left over from ocean green rocks from basalt (erupted in water, has pillows) Obduction Processes as Indian Sub-Continent Collides with Asia The process where continents collide (way we grow continents), no subduction (losing ground mass) involved so no volcanoes, just earthquakes Destruction of the Tethys Ocean Alpine Himalayan creation = Tethys ocean is disappearing
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