EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Frederick Vine, Asthenosphere, Continental Drift

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8 Aug 2016
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EESA06 Lecture 1 Page 1
EESA06 Lecture 1
Planet Earth 2011
- Earth is 4.5billion years old
- Geography of planet has changed, Plate Tectonic Movements
- Rocks can tell us the history of the planet – where water was, where land ones
- Glacial erratic – large boulders
oMarble – altered limestone
- Super-continent – Pangaea Great – all together in one place
- Amnesia Continent – Pangaea # 2 – will become a super continent once again
- Stratigraphy – putting rocks in their relative age – organizing history
oAka Historical geology
- Vector Map – direction of movement and velocity of movement of land masses
- Next super continent clustered around southeast china
- Ring of Fire – most dangerous place to live, the outline of pacific
- Geophysical Equipment – cameras etc. go underwater
- Derrick – drilling tower
oThe Resolution - drill ship can drill 7km underwater
Scope of Course
- Earth history: Application of ‘plate tectonics’ to the ancient past to reconstructing past
continents/oceans
- Paleo-environment reconstruction (ex: climate) and paleo-biology
oPaleo = old
- Geographical evolution of Canada over 4 billion years
- Environmental issues and hazards (earthquakes etc) resources (mineral, water, oil)
Lecture 1 and 2:
How Planet Earth Works: Plate Tectonics (Chapters 1 and 2 in textbook)
Key concepts to read up for the First Two Quizzes:
- Formation of planet Earth 4,500 million years before present ‘Continental drift’ and Pangaea:
1912 (Alfred Wegner)
oHe proposed that craters on the moon were caused by meteor impact
- Sea Floor Spreading: 1960 (Harold Hess)
oOceans are widening, pushing the continents around
- Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor and wander paths for continents: 1965 (Fred Vine)
- Mid-ocean ridges and hot spots: 1965 (Tuzo Wilson)
- Plate Tectonics and Wilson Cycle: 1967 (Tuzo Wilson)
oContinental drift (continents are moving around) vs. Plate tectonics (whole of earth
surface can be broken up into plates and those plates are moving due to mantel
movement)
Change in the Earth’s Interior – Differentiation – caused by gravity
[diagram]
Differentiated into a Core, Mantel and Crust
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